Table 2

Characteristics associated with any IA

Study population,Any IA (N = 703)IAA (N = 272)GADA (N = 299)
NN (%)HR (95% CI)P valueN (%)HR (95% CI)P valueN (%)HR (95% CI)P value
Country
 Finland1,654180 (25.6)1.40 (1.15, 1.71)<0.00189 (32.7)2.28 (1.67, 3.11)<0.001110 (36.8)1.00 (0.72, 1.39)0.999
 Germany51054 (7.7)1.30 (0.96, 1.76)0.09220 (7.4)1.36 (0.82, 2.25)0.23460 (20.1)0.82 (0.47, 1.42)0.471
 Sweden2,283240 (34.1)1.30 (1.08, 1.56)0.00583 (30.5)1.38 (1.02, 1.89)0.03915 (5.0)1.25 (0.96, 1.62)0.103
 U.S.3,116229 (32.6)180 (29.4)1114 (38.1)1
High-risk HLA genotype (DR3/4)
 Yes2,956344 (48.9)1.61 (1.38, 1.88)<0.001128 (47.1)1.54 (1.21, 1.96)<0.001150 (50.2)1.65 (1.31, 2.07)<0.001
 No4,607359 (51.1)1144 (52.9)1149 (49.8)1
FDR with T1D
 Yes857136 (19.4)1.99 (1.64, 2.43)<0.00158 (21.3)2.32 (1.71, 3.15)<0.00152 (17.4)1.85 (1.36, 2.53)<0.001
 No6,706567 (80.6)1214 (78.7)1247 (82.6)1
Sex of the child
 Female3,698322 (45.8)0.87 (0.75, 1.00)0.056152 (44.1)0.81 (0.64, 1.03)0.079144 (48.2)0.95 (0.76, 1.19)0.661
 Male3,865381 (54.2)1120 (55.9)1155 (51.8)1
Probiotics, age at first exposure
 <28 days53841 (5.8)0.70 (0.50, 0.97)0.02215 (5.5)0.53 (0.31, 0.91)0.02115 (5.0)0.72 (0.42, 1.24)0.237
 ≥28 days7,025662 (94.2)1257 (94.5)1284 (95.0)1