Table 2

Summary of infection rates during 2008–2015 and IRRs among people with diabetes versus matched control subjects

Type of infectionPeople with T2DM (n = 96,630)Control subjects (n = 191,822)T2DM vs. control subjectsPeople with T1DM (n = 5,863)Control subjects (n = 11,696)T1DM vs. control subjects
EventsRateRateIRR* (95% CI)EventsRateRateIRR* (95% CI)
Bone and joint infections1,0712.260.504.93 (4.34–5.61)1825.750.3022.34 (12.12–41.20)
Cholecystitis (acute)1,0352.011.351.62 (1.48–1.77)511.610.851.92 (1.22–3.03)
Endocarditis1000.200.131.84 (1.33–2.53)80.250.086.70 (1.35–33.39)
Eye infection10,98621.9217.421.26 (1.22–1.30)63820.1414.581.38 (1.22–1.56)
Gastrointestinal3,9307.904.751.70 (1.63–1.78)2427.643.842.04 (1.69–2.46)
Infective otitis externa7,09114.1812.111.16 (1.11–1.21)49315.5611.081.39 (1.18–1.63)
Lower respiratory tract infection50,609101.1173.361.40 (1.38–1.43)2,55480.6354.911.50 (1.39–1.62)
Meningitis370.070.051.64 (1.02–2.65)50.160.036.34 (0.67–59.91)
Mycoses
 Candidiasis11,02522.2010.782.11 (2.04–2.19)72122.7610.152.39 (2.06–2.77)
 Other fungal11,95423.8018.991.25 (1.22–1.29)78324.7217.871.40 (1.25–1.57)
Pneumonia7,93515.9710.681.58 (1.53–1.64)35511.214.542.98 (2.40–3.69)
Sepsis2,6125.292.582.25 (2.10–2.40)1635.151.156.10 (4.28–8.69)
Sinusitis (acute)6,60513.2112.061.09 (1.04–1.14)52516.5714.151.14 (0.98–1.34)
Skin
 Cellulitis18,97438.3519.752.03 (1.97–2.08)99531.4111.762.84 (2.48–3.25)
 Other24,33848.9528.831.72 (1.69–1.76)1,85858.6727.812.15 (1.98–2.35)
Surgical site2,7935.643.501.66 (1.57–1.76)2267.132.922.70 (2.14–3.40)
Tuberculosis1230.250.161.64 (1.23–2.20)90.280.092.63 (0.84–8.24)
Upper respiratory tract infection (other)25,84351.5140.561.27 (1.24–1.30)1,68653.2241.611.29 (1.19–1.39)
UTI28,70557.5038.951.53 (1.49–1.56)1,49047.0427.251.81 (1.63–2.01)
Summary groups
 Any plus prescription132,661265.62183.601.47 (1.46–1.49)7,842247.57152.091.66 (1.59–1.74)
 Any as hospitalization19,09738.7221.891.88 (1.83–1.92)1,17837.1911.673.71 (3.27–4.21)
 Death from infection§1,4702.991.851.92 (1.75–2.10)802.530.607.72 (4.47–13.33)
  • *IRRs estimated from Poisson model conditioned on match sets (age-sex-practice matched).

  • †Rate per 1,000 per year.

  • ‡Leading causes included pneumonia (35%), lower respiratory tract infection (15%), cellulitis (12%), gastrointestinal (8%), sepsis (7%), surgical site (6%), UTI (4%), and skin (other) (3%).

  • §Leading causes included pneumonia (70%), sepsis (7%), lower respiratory tract infection (5%), gastrointestinal (5%), endocarditis (4%), and cellulitis (3%).