Table 3

Association of timing of dietary exposures with the risk of IA (any IA, IAA, or GADA)

Dietary exposureIADuration of breastfeeding or age at introduction of food (months)HR (95% CI)*P value*
Among those who developed autoantibodiesAmong those who did not develop autoantibodies
NNot breastfed or food was not introduced by the end of follow-up (%)Mean (SD)NNot breastfed or food was not introduced by the end of follow-up (%)Mean (SD)
Exclusive breastfeedingAny IA70301.3 (1.9)6,86001.2 (1.8)1.00 (0.96, 1.04)0.980
IAA2721.4 (1.9)7,2911.2 (1.8)1.01 (0.95, 1.07)0.763
GADA2991.3 (1.9)7,2641.2 (1.8)1.01 (0.95, 1.07)0.810
Any breastfeedingAny IA6941.38.4 (7.3)6,6173.57.4 (6.4)1.01 (1.00, 1.02)0.118
IAA2708.5 (6.7)7,0417.5 (6.5)1.01 (0.99, 1.03)0.205
GADA2948.6 (8.2)7,0177.4 (6.5)1.01 (1.00, 1.03)0.123
Any infant formulaAny IA59814.91.2 (2.5)6,00612.41.2 (2.3)0.99 (0.96, 1.02)0.522
IAA2351.4 (2.7)6,3691.2 (2.3)1.02 (0.96, 1.05)0.574
GADA2571.3 (2.5)6,3471.2 (2.3)1.01 (0.96, 1.06)0.696
Cow’s milkAny IA7010.32.1 (3.1)6,8240.51.8 (2.8)1.01 (0.98, 1.04)0.474
IAA2702.2 (3.2)7,2551.8 (2.8)1.02 (0.98, 1.07)0.301
GADA2992.0 (3.0)7,2261.9 (2.8)1.01 (0.97, 1.05)0.613
Any solid foodAny IA7010.33.6 (1.4)6,8390.33.5 (1.4)1.03 (0.97, 1.09)0.384
IAA2723.5 (1.4)7,2683.5 (1.4)0.99 (0.90, 1.08)0.757
GADA2973.7 (1.3)7,2433.5 (1.4)1.07 (0.97, 1.17)0.159
Selected foodsAny IA7010.33.7 (1.3)6,8380.33.6 (1.4)1.03 (0.97, 1.09)0.368
IAA2723.6 (1.3)7,2673.6 (1.4)1.01 (0.91, 1.11)0.873
GADA2973.7 (1.3)7,2423.6 (1.4)1.00 (1.00, 1.01)0.118
Cereals, anyAny IA6990.64.4 (1.4)6,8100.74.2 (1.4)1.03 (0.97, 1.10)0.330
IAA2714.4 (1.4)7,2384.2 (1.4)1.01 (0.91, 1.14)0.789
GADA2964.3 (1.3)7,2134.2 (1.4)1.03 (0.94, 1.14)0.525
Gluten-containing cerealsAny IA6990.65.8 (2.1)6,7082.25.7 (2.0)1.05 (1.01, 1.10)0.023
IAA2715.9 (2.1)7,1365.7 (2.0)1.08 (1.00, 1.16)0.038
GADA2965.8 (2.0)7,1115.7 (2.0)1.06 (0.99, 1.13)0.121
RiceAny IA6990.65.0 (1.9)6,7551.54.8 (1.8)1.02 (0.97, 1.07)0.445
IAA2715.1 (2.0)7,1834.8 (1.8)1.01 (0.93, 1.10)0.779
GADA2964.8 (1.7)7,1584.8 (1.8)1.00 (0.93, 1.08)0.936
Root vegetablesAny IA7010.34.3 (1.2)6,8060.84.3 (1.3)1.03 (0.96, 1.10)0.464
IAA2724.2 (1.2)7,2354.3 (1.3)1.00 (0.90, 1.12)0.942
GADA2974.4 (1.3)7,2104.3 (1.3)1.05 (0.95, 1.16)0.352
PotatoesAny IA6990.65.2 (2.2)6,6982.45.3 (2.4)1.05 (1.00, 1.10)0.051
IAA2715.1 (2.1)7,1265.3 (2.4)1.05 (0.97, 1.14)0.200
GADA2965.4 (2.4)7,1015.3 (2.3)1.06 (0.99, 1.13)0.116
Fruits or berriesAny IA7000.44.3 (1.4)6,8060.84.2 (1.5)1.04 (0.98, 1.10)0.167
IAA2724.3 (1.5)7,2344.2 (1.5)1.04 (0.95, 1.14)0.372
GADA2964.4 (1.4)7,2104.2 (1.5)1.05 (0.96, 1.14)0.315
MeatAny IA6921.66.0 (1.8)6,6762.76.1 (2.0)1.02 (0.97, 1.08)0.457
IAA2696.0 (1.7)7,0996.1 (2.0)1.03 (0.94, 1.12)0.564
GADA2926.1 (2.0)7,0766.1 (2.0)1.04 (0.96, 1.12)0.364
EggAny IA6842.78.9 (2.5)6,4585.98.7 (2.5)1.02 (0.99, 1.05)0.288
IAA2668.9 (2.7)6,8768.7 (2.5)1.00 (0.95, 1.06)0.878
GADA2908.9 (2.4)6,8528.7 (2.5)1.04 (0.99, 1.09)0.140
Fish or other seafoodAny IA6625.88.6 (3.6)6,2109.58.6 (3.6)1.01 (0.98, 1.04)0.537
IAA2568.5 (3.8)6,6168.6 (3.6)0.99 (0.94, 1.05)0.810
GADA2808.7 (3.6)6,5928.6 (3.6)1.03 (0.98, 1.08)0.258
  • *HR and corresponding P value were obtained from the Cox regression model adjusted for country, HLA genotype, FDR status, sex of the child, and probiotic use <28 days. HRs reflect the change in the risk with 1-month longer breastfeeding or 1-month delay in food introduction.