Table 1

Description of foods and food groups studied in relation to the risk of IA

Dietary Exposures
Breastfeeding and food exposures that were each studied separatelySelected foods: foods associated with IA in previous studies; they were studied as one combined variableAny solid food: all solid foods that were studied as one combined variable
Exclusive breastfeeding
Any breastfeeding
Infant formula
Cow’s milk (any cow’s milk exposure)
All cerealsAll cerealsAll cereals
Gluten-containing cerealsGluten-containing cerealsGluten-containing cereals
Fruits and berriesFruits and berriesFruits and berries
Root vegetablesRoot vegetablesRoot vegetables
Meat (beef, pork, poultry, game)Meat (beef, pork, poultry, game)
Fish and seafoodFish and seafood
Milk products (yogurt, sour cream, cheese, commercial baby foods containing yogurt, cottage cheese)
Peas, green beans
Cabbages (Chinese cabbage, red cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, kale, cabbage turnip, collard, mustard green, turnip greens)
Squash, pumpkin
Tomato, tomato sauce
Other vegetable
Sausage, hot dogs
  • Variables studied are shown in bold.