Table 1

Age-adjusted baseline characteristics by quintiles of the HDS in the SWHS and SMHS

CharacteristicsWomen (n = 64,802, 1996–2000)Men (n = 53,117, 2002–2006)
Quintile 1Quintile 3Quintile 5Quintile 1Quintile 3Quintile 5
HDS, mean ± SD17.0 ± 1.924.0 ± 0.832.1 ± 2.017.1 ± 1.924.0 ± 0.831.4 ± 2.3
Age (years), mean ± SD53.1 ± 9.251.3 ± 8.750.5 ± 8.153.3 ± 9.153.9 ± 9.055.4 ± 9.5
High education (%)7.813.620.211.821.934.7
High income (%)12.417.723.65.19.414.9
Tobacco smoking (%)
 Never95.797.698.519.628.140.2
 Ever4.32.41.580.471.959.8
 Past7.48.810.9
 Current <12 cigarettes/day22.123.520.9
 Current ≥12 cigarettes/day50.939.728.0
Alcohol drinking (%)
 None97.997.997.365.865.167.2
 Ever2.12.12.734.234.932.8
 Past4.43.53.0
 Current <2 drinks/day16.819.120.7
 Current ≥2 drinks/day13.112.39.1
Leisure-time physical activity (%)25.732.740.922.830.843.9
Postmenopause (%)50.643.341.2
Family history of diabetes (%)14.016.116.917.116.916.2
History of hypertension (%)20.418.918.322.524.427.5
BMI (kg/m2), mean ± SD24.2 ± 3.423.8 ± 3.223.7 ± 3.523.6 ± 3.223.6 ± 3.023.7 ± 2.9
Dietary intake, mean ± SD
 Total energy (kcal/day)1,752 ± 4051,682 ± 3821,625 ± 4192,017 ± 4931,929 ± 4601,848 ± 445
 Fruits (g/day)141 ± 145255 ± 137410 ± 15066 ± 116143 ± 108250 ± 104
 Vegetables (g/day)171 ± 123263 ± 116405 ± 128202 ± 145310 ± 135449 ± 130
 Dairy products (g/day)28 ± 24691 ± 232199 ± 25530 ± 183103 ± 171206 ± 165
 Fish (g/day)25 ± 3646 ± 3480 ± 3824 ± 4048 ± 3780 ± 36
 Legumes and nuts (dry weight, g/day)11 ± 1118 ± 1126 ± 1214 ± 1322 ± 1231 ± 12
 Refined grains (g/day)359 ± 37313 ± 35259 ± 39419 ± 45371 ± 42321 ± 41
 Red meat (g/day)54 ± 2951 ± 2738 ± 3065 ± 3765 ± 3553 ± 33
 Processed meat (times/month)2.2 ± 2.91.9 ± 2.71.3 ± 3.02.0 ± 2.31.7 ± 2.21.2 ± 2.1
  • Continuous and categorical variables were compared by general linear regression and χ2 tests, respectively. All P < 0.05 for comparison among quintiles, with exception of family history of diabetes in men.

  • †High education was defined as having professional or college education or more. High income was defined as family income ≥30,000 yuan/year in the SWHS and personal income ≥24,000 yuan/year in the SMHS.

  • ‡Dietary intakes were adjusted for total energy intake using the residual method.