Table 3

Adjusted mean (SE) left ventricular structural and functional outcomes at year 25 according to the duration of diabetes during follow-up (the CARDIA Study)

Duration of diabetes (years)PtrendPer each additional 5 years
01–56–1011–15>15
Structural outcomes
 Left ventricular mass (g)
  No. of participants2,4651151344756
  Model 1170.5 (1.1)186.8 (4.1)187.1 (3.8)186.7 (6.4)198.1 (5.9)<0.0017.4 (1.02)
  Model 2169.3 (1.2)171.6 (3.7)166.9 (3.6)158.8 (5.8)173.8 (5.4)0.88−0.14 (0.96)
 Relative wall thickness
  No. of participants2,4631151344656
  Model 10.35 (0.002)0.36 (0.006)0.37 (0.006)0.36 (0.010)0.36 (0.001)0.130.0025 (0.002)
  Model 20.35 (0.002)0.36 (0.007)0.36 (0.006)0.35 (0.010)0.35 (0.010)0.89−0.0002 (0.002)
Systolic function outcomes
 Ejection fraction (%)
  No. of participants2,4651151344756
  Model 169.7 (0.2)69.2 (0.7)69.5 (0.7)69.2 (1.1)69.1 (1.1)0.50−0.12 (0.18)
  Model 269.8 (0.2)69.2 (0.7)69.8 (0.7)69.5 (1.2)69.3 (1.1)0.57−0.11 (0.19)
 Longitudinal strain (%)
  No. of participants2,4191141294549
  Model 1−15.0 (0.1)−14.6 (0.2)−14.0 (0.2)−14.3 (0.3)−13.8 (0.3)<0.0010.34 (0.06)
  Model 2−15.0 (0.1)−14.8 (0.2)−14.4 (0.2)−14.7 (0.3)−14.1 (0.3)<0.0010.21 (0.06)
Diastolic function outcomes
 e′ (cm/s)
  No. of participants2,6851341535460
  Model 111.8 (0.1)10.6 (0.2)11.0 (0.2)11.2 (0.4)10.4 (0.3)<0.001−0.36 (0.06)
  Model 211.7 (0.1)11.0 (0.2)11.3 (0.2)11.8 (0.4)10.9 (0.3)0.004−0.18 (0.06)
 E-to-e′ ratio
  No. of participants2,6691311535359
  Model 17.0 (0.05)8.2 (0.19)7.7 (0.18)7.8 (0.30)8.0 (0.29)<0.0010.32 (0.05)
  Model 27.0 (0.06)7.8 (0.19)7.3 (0.18)7.3 (0.30)7.5 (0.29)0.0010.17 (0.05)
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, race, educational attainment, study center, and duration of prediabetes. Model 2 was adjusted for model 1 variables in addition to lifetime pack-years of smoking, use of blood pressure–lowering medication, and mean BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol level during follow-up.