Table 1

Participant characteristics according to duration of diabetes and prediabetes (the CARDIA Study) (n = 3,628)

VariableDuration of diabetes (years)PtrendDuration of prediabetes (years)Ptrend
0 (n = 3,168)1–5 (n = 155)6–10 (n = 168)11–1 (n = 64)>15 (n = 73)0 (n = 1,678)1–5 (n = 792)6–10 (n = 657)11–15 (n = 282)>15 (n = 219)
Baseline age (years)24.9 (3.6)25.5 (3.4)25.5 (3.8)25.2 (3.6)25.6 (3.4)0.00424.6 (3.6)25.1 (3.6)25.3 (3.6)25.3 (3.7)25.3 (3.5)<0.001
Women56.458.760.154.750.70.8365.658.550.132.630.1<0.001
Black race44.663.267.973.460.3<0.00142.448.156.053.647.5<0.001
Educational attainment (years)15.7 (2.6)15.2 (2.4)15.1 (2.5)14.7 (2.2)14.6 (2.6)<0.00115.7 (2.6)15.7 (2.6)15.3 (2.4)15.4 (2.5)15.2 (2.6)<0.001
Ever smoker48.250.347.654.757.50.1248.246.749.649.354.30.14
Lifetime pack-years2.5 (1.3, 3.8)2.8 (1.8, 5.0)2.8 (1.3, 5.0)1.8 (1.0, 3.8)2.5 (1.3, 3.8)0.202.0 (1.3, 3.8)2.5 (1.3, 3.8)2.5 (1.3, 3.8)2.5 (1.4, 4.4)2.5 (1.3, 4.8)0.41
Family history of diabetes33.152.959.557.849.3<0.00130.639.842.039.040.6<0.001
Clinical and physical characteristics
 BMI (kg/m2)26.3 (5.0)30.8 (6.4)32.3 (7.2)34.3 (7.1)31.8 (5.8)<0.00126.0 (5.4)27.4 (5.5)28.4 (6.1)28.4 (5.3)28.4 (5.3)<0.001
 Glucose (mg/dL)88.7 (6.3)98.8 (10.8)104.9 (16.7)118.5 (22.3)130.7 (35.4)<0.00187.9 (12.7)91.4 (10.0)95.2 (12.7)96.6 (8.1)97.8 (7.0)<0.001
 HbA1c (%)5.4 (0.4)6.2 (0.8)6.9 (1.4)7.8 (1.5)7.7 (2.0)<0.0015.2 (0.9)5.6 (0.8)5.8 (0.8)5.8 (0.6)5.7 (0.4)<0.001
 2-h postload glucose (mg/dL)100.0 (22.7)146.8 (50.0)164.5 (73.0)148.5 (66.0)220.3 (113.3)<0.00196.1 (35.8)110.3 (36.0)117.3 (39.6)117.9 (34.1)119.4 (34.0)<0.001
 Insulin (µU/mL)8.0 (6.3, 10.5)13.2 (9.9, 16.9)13.0 (9.9, 16.4)15.9 (12.5, 22.6)14.3 (10.6, 19.3)<0.0017.4 (6.0, 9.8)8.8 (6.9, 11.8)9.8 (7.1, 13.6)10.2 (7.6, 13.2)10.1 (7.8, 12.5)<0.001
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)110.4 (9.3)115.5 (10.0)115.2 (10.4)118.0 (10.6)116.7 (9.5)<0.001109.2 (9.4)111.1 (9.3)113.2 (9.5)114.7 (9.6)115.2 (9.0)<0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)70.2 (7.2)74.0 (7.0)74.6 (7.2)76.5 (8.2)74.5 (6.6)<0.00169.4 (7.3)70.9 (7.1)72.2 (7.4)72.7 (7.4)72.9 (6.9)<0.001
 Ever hypertension medication20.056.158.364.157.5<0.00110.314.718.414.214.2<0.001
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)181.0 (27.5)186.2 (28.5)184.2 (28.6)182.8 (27.7)187.4 (28.2)0.008178.6 (26.5)182.4 (28.1)185.4 (28.3)185.2 (28.2)184.9 (28.8)<0.001
 Ever cholesterol medication9.828.435.751.645.2<0.00110.314.718.414.214.2<0.001
  • Data are presented as mean (SD), median (interquartile range), or % as appropriate.

  • †Among ever smokers.

  • ‡Average of all available measures during follow-up.