Table 1

Clinical and biochemical characteristics of the study participants

Control subjects(n = 73)DN Resistors (n = 44)DN(n = 22)P for trendP for control subjects vs. DN ResistorsP for DN Resistors vs. DN
Clinical characteristics
 Sex (M/F)32/4122/228/140.570.520.29
 Age (years)65 ± 865 ± 768 ± 80.180.730.08
 Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)55 ± 655 ± 50.92
 Weight (kg)75.7 ± 16.273.3 ± 12.573.1 ± 12.10.600.390.95
 BMI (kg/m2)27.2 ± 5.526.4 ± 3.527.0 ± 4.80.650.360.61
 RAAS inhibition10 (14)34 (78)20 (91)<0.001<0.0010.18
 SBP (mmHg)129 ± 19133 ± 16134 ± 140.310.240.73
 DBP (mmHg)79 ± 1071 ± 1069 ± 9<0.001<0.0010.37
 Heart rate (bpm)67 ± 971 ± 1369 ± 100.200.070.51
 Total daily insulin (units/kg)0.48 ± 0.160.49 ± 0.240.79
Adiposity
 Whole-body fat mass (kg)27.1 ± 9.922.6 ± 7.425.7 ± 8.20.040.010.18
 Whole-body fat percentage (%)35.1 ± 8.230.8 ± 8.534.6 ± 7.50.020.0080.08
 Trunk fat mass (kg)13.0 ± 5.510.4 ± 3.912.2 ± 5.10.030.0090.17
 Trunk fat percentage (%)33.8 ± 8.328.9 ± 8.632.5 ± 8.40.010.0030.11
Lean mass (kg)49.2 ± 11.050.6 ± 10.647.9 ± 8.10.610.570.32
Measured parameters of intrarenal hemodynamic function
 GFRINULIN (mL/min/1.73 m2)105 ± 19108 ± 1693 ± 150.0050.510.002
 ERPFPAH (mL/min/1.73 m2)497 ± 131478 ± 101385 ± 70<0.0010.390.002
 MAP (mmHg)85 ± 1188 ± 789 ± 80.180.190.55
 Hematocrit (L/L)0.38 ± 0.040.35 ± 0.030.34 ± 0.03<0.001<0.0010.16
 Plasma protein (g/L)61 ± 556 ± 659 ± 4<0.001<0.0010.02
 RVR (mmHg/L/min ⋅ 1,000)115 ± 38125 ± 32157 ± 30<0.0010.15<0.001
Derived parameters of intrarenal hemodynamic function
 RBF (mL/min/1.73 m2)803 ± 216742 ± 163584 ± 112<0.0010.090.002
 FF (%)0.22 ± 0.040.23 ± 0.040.25 ± 0.050.010.130.10
 PGLO (mmHg)44.6 ± 2.849.3 ± 4.149.1 ± 3.7<0.001<0.0010.74
 RA (dyne ⋅ s ⋅ cm−5)4,448 ± 2,0554,400 ± 1,6145,652 ± 1,622<0.0010.890.01
 RE (dyne ⋅ s ⋅ cm−5)1,215 ± 2672,310 ± 4512,592 ± 656<0.001<0.0010.01
Biochemical characteristics
 HbA1c (%)5.7 ± 0.47.3 ± 0.87.6 ± 1.0<0.001<0.0010.03
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)39 ± 456 ± 960 ± 11<0.001<0.0010.03
 Glucose (mmol/L)5.4 ± 1.68.1 ± 3.49.4 ± 4.1<0.001<0.0010.09
 eGFRMDRD (mL/min/1.73 m2)84 ± 1481 ± 1257 ± 14<0.0010.19<0.001
 Urine ACR (mg/mmol)1.0 [0.7, 2.2]1.0 [0.7, 1.6]9.5 [5.1, 16.3]<0.0010.69<0.001
  • Data are expressed as the mean ± SD, median [interquartile range], or n (%), unless otherwise indicated. ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; F, female; M, male.