Table 4

Adjusted mean (SE) left ventricular structural and functional outcomes at year 25 according to the duration of prediabetes during follow-up (the CARDIA Study)

Duration of prediabetes (years)PtrendPer each additional 5 years
01–56–1011–15>15
Structural outcomes
 Left ventricular mass (g)
  No. of participants1,273619527223175
  Model 1178.9 (2.2)181.9 (2.6)188.9 (2.7)189.5 (3.5)189.9 (4.0)<0.0013.8 (0.69)
  Model 2168.0 (2.1)166.5 (2.4)170.9 (2.5)168.2 (3.3)166.8 (3.6)0.540.39 (0.64)
 Relative wall thickness
  No. of participants1,272619526222175
  Model 10.35 (0.004)0.36 (0.004)0.36 (0.004)0.36 (0.006)0.35 (0.006)0.080.0019 (0.001)
  Model 20.35 (0.004)0.35 (0.004)0.36 (0.004)0.36 (0.006)0.35 (0.006)0.530.0007 (0.001)
Systolic function outcomes
 Ejection fraction (%)
  No. of participants1,273619527223175
  Model 168.6 (0.4)69.9 (0.5)70.0 (0.5)69.8 (0.6)68.4 (0.7)0.100.20 (0.12)
  Model 268.8 (0.4)70.1 (0.5)70.2 (0.5)70.0 (0.7)68.6 (0.7)0.130.20 (0.13)
 Longitudinal strain (%)
  No. of participants1,224611519229173
  Model 1−14.7 (0.1)−14.4 (0.1)−14.3 (0.1)−14.2 (0.2)−14.1 (0.2)<0.0010.17 (0.04)
  Model 2−14.9 (0.1)−14.6 (0.1)−14.6 (0.1)−14.5 (0.2)−14.5 (0.2)<0.0010.13 (0.04)
Diastolic function outcomes
 e′ (cm/s)
  No. of participants1,357685585256203
  Model 111.4 (0.1)10.9 (0.1)10.9 (0.2)11.1 (0.2)10.8 (0.2)<0.001−0.20 (0.04)
  Model 211.6 (0.1)11.2 (0.1)11.2 (0.2)11.5 (0.2)11.3 (0.2)0.002−0.12 (0.04)
 E-to-e′ ratio
  No. of participants1,345681584253202
  Model 17.5 (0.11)7.8 (0.12)7.8 (0.13)7.6 (0.17)8.0 (0.18)<0.0010.12 (0.03)
  Model 27.3 (0.11)7.5 (0.12)7.4 (0.13)7.2 (0.17)7.4 (0.19)0.200.04 (0.03)
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, race, educational attainment, study center, and duration of diabetes. Model 2 was adjusted for model 1 variables in addition to lifetime pack-years of smoking, use of blood pressure–lowering medication, and mean BMI, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol level during follow-up.