Table 2

Adjusted HRs (95% CI) for presence of CAC according to the time-varying duration of diabetes and prediabetes during follow-up (the CARDIA Study)

0 years1–5 years6–10 years11–15 years>15 yearsPtrendPer each additional 5 years
Diabetes duration
 Person-years72,0253,4103,2001,3601,355
 No. of cases82151422417
 Incidence rate*11.415.013.117.612.5
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.59 (1.19, 2.12)2.07 (1.50, 2.84)2.56 (1.70, 3.85)2.17 (1.33, 3.54)<0.0011.31 (1.21, 1.41)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.11 (0.83, 1.50)1.57 (1.13, 2.18)1.69 (1.10, 2.59)1.50 (0.92, 2.46)0.0011.15 (1.06, 1.25)
Prediabetes duration
 Person-years40,06517,76013,5405,8204,420
 No. of cases4422081697164
 Incidence rate*11.011.712.512.214.5
 Model 11 (Ref.)1.28 (1.08, 1.51)1.39 (1.15, 1.67)1.31 (1.01, 1.70)2.07 (1.57, 2.73)<0.0011.17 (1.11, 1.24)
 Model 21 (Ref.)1.04 (0.88, 1.24)1.08 (0.90, 1.31)0.97 (0.75, 1.27)1.57 (1.18, 2.08)0.031.07 (1.01, 1.13)
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, race, educational attainment, study center, and mutual adjustment for duration of diabetes or prediabetes. Model 2 was adjusted for model 1 variables in addition to time-varying lifetime pack-years of smoking, BMI, systolic blood pressure, use of blood pressure–lowering medication, and total cholesterol level during follow-up. Ref., reference.

  • *Per 1,000 person-years.