Table 1

Clinical characteristics of Medalists stratified by the presence of CKD and PDR

+CKD/−PDR−CKD/−PDR+CKD/+PDR−CKD/+PDR
N3032766339
Sex (male)46.746.840.944.3
Age (years)73 (67, 77)*65 (61, 70)65 (62, 71)64 (60, 70)
Age at diagnosis (years)15 (10, 21)*11 (6, 16)10 (7, 14)10 (6, 14)
Duration (years)54 (51, 63)53 (51, 56)54 (51, 58)53 (51, 56)
Daily insulin dose (units/kg)0.48 (0.31, 0.62)0.42 (0.34, 0.52)0.44 (0.33, 0.56)0.43 (0.35, 0.54)
HbA1c (%)7.0 (6.4, 8.0)7.1 (6.5, 7.6)7.2 (6.4, 7.8)7.2 (6.7, 7.7)
HbA1c (mmol/mol)53 (46, 64)54 (48, 60)55 (46, 62)55 (50, 61)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)3.8 (3.4, 4.4)4.1 (3.7, 4.7)4.0 (3.4, 4.5)4.0 (3.5, 4.7)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.0 (1.5, 2.5)2.0 (1.7, 2.4)2.0 (1.6, 2.5)2.0 (1.7, 2.3)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.4 (1.1, 1.8)*1.7 (1.4, 2.1)1.4 (1.2, 1.7)1.6 (1.3, 2.0)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)0.8 (0.7, 1.2)*0.7 (0.6, 0.9)1.0 (0.7, 1.2)0.7 (0.6, 1.0)
BMI (kg/m2)25.5 (23.6, 28.3)*25.2 (22.5, 28.1)27.7 (24.1, 30.4)25.9 (23.3, 28.7)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)40.5 (33.6, 43.7)*77.6 (63.2, 89.9)35.5 (28.8, 41.5)71.8 (60.1, 85.6)
Serum creatinine (µmol/L)132.6 (114.9, 159.1)*79.6 (69.8, 94.6)142.8 (123.8, 176.8)85.7 (70.7, 97.2)
ACR (mg/mmol)2.1 (0.9, 6.5)*1.2 (0.7, 2.4)3.6 (1.5, 14.3)1.4 (0.8, 4.0)
CRP (mg/L)1.0 (0.6, 1.8)0.7 (0.2, 1.7)0.8 (0.3, 2.7)0.7 (0.2, 1.7)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130 (119, 148)132 (120, 146)127 (120, 148)128 (120, 140)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)60 (58, 68)*65 (58, 70)62 (58, 69)62 (58, 68)
Detectable C-peptide56.7*37.028.632.1
Responder to MMTT22.25.85.65.9
CVD34.5*28.868.242.8
Neuropathy (MNSI ≥2)73.368.873.974.3
Antihypertensive medication72.4*60.190.865.7
Lipid-lowering medication75.066.380.372.3
Exercise65.5*84.372.379.8
Smoking01.62.23.6
IA230.024.015.920.6
GAD6526.728.531.827.0
DR3 or DR4100.093.893.893.9
  • Data are median (IQR) or %. For C-peptide response to mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT), n = 439. MNSI, Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument.

  • *P < 0.05 between all groups. Boldface text highlights the differences between groups (equals *P < 0.05 between all groups).