Table 1

Baseline demographic, clinical, and psychosocial characteristics of REAL Diabetes study participants

Total, n = 81IG, n = 41CG, n = 40
Demographic
 Age (years)22.6 ± 3.523.3 ± 3.621.9 ± 3.3
 Sex (% female)51 (63)22 (54)29 (72)
 Generation*
  021 (26)10 (24)11 (28)
  135 (43)20 (49)15 (38)
  225 (31)11 (27)14 (35)
 Race/ethnicity
  White8 (10)3 (7)5 (12)
  Black8 (10)3 (7)5 (12)
  Hispanic/Latino63 (78)35 (85)28 (70)
  Other2 (2)02 (5)
 Hollingshead Index (n = 67)29.6 ± 13.127.3 ± 11.932.5 ± 14.1
 Neighborhood income ($K)43.8 ± 1642.6 ± 16.045.0 ± 16.0
 Neighborhood % below federal poverty level23.8 ± 11.323.9 ± 11.023.8 ± 11.8
 Recruitment site (recruitment strategy)
  County hospital (in person)39 (48)20 (49)19 (48)
  Children’s hospital (in person/mass mailing)13 (16)8 (20)5 (13)
  Other community settings (social media advertising)29 (36)13 (32)16 (40)
 Diabetes care provider
  Endocrinologist57 (70)30 (73)27 (68)
  Primary care provider16 (20)8 (20)8 (20)
  No regular source of care/unknown8 (10)3 (7)5 (13)
Clinical
 Diabetes type
  Type 1 diabetes61 (75)31 (76)30 (75)
  Type 2 diabetes20 (25)10 (24)10 (25)
 Diabetes duration (years)9.7 ± 5.810.0 ± 5.99.4 ± 5.8
 Family history of diabetes65 (80)28 (68)37 (92)
 Treatment regimen
  None3 (4)2 (5)1 (2)
  Oral medication and/or noninsulin injectable only4 (5)3 (7)1 (2)
  Insulin only63 (78)31 (76)32 (80)
  Oral medication and/or noninsulin injectable + insulin11 (14)5 (12)6 (15)
 Among those on insulin
  Fixed regimen28 (38)12 (33)16 (42)
  Intensive regimen: injections/pen35 (43)20 (49)15 (39)
  Intensive regimen: insulin pump9 (11)5 (12)4 (11)
  Unknown2 (2)1 (2)3 (8)
 Health care utilization (12 months prior to baseline)
  Number of routine diabetes visits (n = 77)3.2 ± 1.83.0 ± 1.93.5 ± 1.8
  ≥2 visits with HbA1c taken ≥3 months apart (n = 77)49 (64)24 (60)25 (68)
  Proportion of participants reporting ≥1 diabetes-related hospitalization19 (23)9 (22)10 (25)
Psychosocial
 Substance abuse (CAGE-AID; range 0–4)0.5 ± 1.00.6 ± 1.00.5 ± 1.0
 Stressful life events (range 0–24)5.0 ± 3.64.8 ± 3.65.1 ± 3.5
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%). CAGE-AID, Cut down, Annoyed, Guilty, Eye-opener–Adapted to Include Drugs.

  • *0 = participant born outside U.S.; 1 = participant but neither parent born in U.S.; 2 = at least one parent born in the U.S.

  • †Using 2010 census tract data.