Table 1

Baseline characteristics of WHI DMT participants, stratified by randomization group and baseline diabetes status

Baseline characteristicsNo diabetes1 (N = 45,579)P value3Diabetes2 (N = 1,444)P value3
Intervention (N = 18,250)Comparison (N = 27,329)Intervention (N = 564)Comparison (N = 880)
Age62.1(6.9)62.2(6.9)0.6863.8(6.5)63.7(6.8)0.67
Race/ethnicity0.940.39
 White15,04082.422,54782.534961.959067.0
 Black1,8129.92,6949.914325.419622.3
 Hispanic6793.71,0043.7376.6434.9
 American Indian790.41030.430.570.8
 Asian/Pacific Islander3972.26162.3213.7303.4
 Unknown2431.33651.3112.0141.6
Smoking0.340.58
 Never9,28051.414,01851.829653.645852.6
 Past7,56341.911,16941.321939.736441.8
 Current1,1976.61,8556.9376.7495.6
Family history of adult diabetes5,67632.88,62533.30.2535367.155167.80.80
Baseline waist circumference ≥88 cm8,59947.313,03847.80.2347083.673083.10.81
Baseline hypertension/CVD status0.480.21
 Normotensive/no CVD9,04654.013,39153.414427.019122.8
 Hypertensive/no CVD7,16742.810,87543.434063.756367.1
 Prior CVD5273.17953.2509.48510.1
Baseline BP/hypertension status0.230.23
 BP <140 and 90 mmHg; never treated9,19056.813,62556.215129.420525.2
 BP ≥140 or 90 mmHg; never treated1,65210.22,41410.0346.6526.4
 Ever treated for hypertension5,33833.08,18433.832964.055568.3
History of high cholesterol requiring medication1,95310.72,99311.00.4013824.521924.90.86
Metabolic syndrome score40.300.53
 04,29425.16,31324.7112.0242.8
 16,47137.99,66837.812322.717019.9
 25,52432.38,32232.531457.850959.6
 38044.71,2965.19517.515117.7
HT trial arm
 CEE5443.09173.40.55417.3586.60.93
 CEE placebo5933.29563.5335.9485.5
 CEE+MPA9225.11,3575.00.51234.1465.20.17
 CEE+MPA placebo8554.71,2084.4356.2445.0
Total energy expenditure/week from physical activity (MET-h)10.2(11.8)10.3(12.1)0.457.5(9.7)7.7(10.8)0.70
BMI (kg/m2)28.9(5.8)28.9(5.8)0.6132.8(6.0)33.1(6.2)0.30
Waist circumference (cm)88.3(13.5)88.3(13.4)0.86100.2(13.0)100.8(13.5)0.43
Systolic BP (mmHg)127.1(17.2)127.4(17.1)0.08134.0(17.1)135.1(16.9)0.25
Diastolic BP (mmHg)75.9(9.1)76.0(9.0)0.1275.5(8.9)76.0(9.3)0.30
LDL-C (mg/dL)5133.2(35.3)134.9(36.2)0.26132.6(33.9)127.1(33.6)0.40
HDL-C (mg/dL)559.8(15.7)58.8(15.1)0.1350.8(12.6)47.5(11.6)0.15
Triglyceride (mg/dL), median (IQR)5129.0(77.0)130.0(82.0)0.55138.0(91.0)165.5(89.0)0.30
Insulin (μIU/mL)510.0(6.9)10.0(7.1)0.5313.9(11.9)15.0(9.2)0.66
Glucose (mg/dL), median (IQR)593.0(15.0)93.0(12.0)0.59174.5(65.0)168.5(79.0)0.67
  • Data are number and percent or mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated. BP, blood pressure; CEE, conjugated equine estrogen; HDL-C, HDL cholesterol; HT, hormone therapy; IQR, interquartile range; LDL-C, LDL cholesterol; MPA, medroxyprogesterone acetate.

  • 1Full dietary trial cohort, exclusive of women with diabetes at baseline.

  • 2Dietary trial participants with diabetes and taking oral agents at baseline.

  • 3P value corresponds to χ2 tests (categorical variables), t tests (continuous variables; not skewed), or Wilcoxon rank tests (continuous variables; skewed); for skewed variables, median (IQR) is presented.

  • 4Score ranges from 0 (best) to 3 (worst) and is a sum of these baseline indicators: waist >88 cm, high cholesterol requiring pills, or BP >130/85 mmHg (or ever treated for hypertension).

  • 5Laboratory measurements based on a 5.8% subsample of trial participants; includes 2,469 participants without diabetes (966 vs. 1,503) and 112 participants with diabetes taking pills at baseline (46 vs. 66).