Table 1

Comparison of participant characteristics, by race/ethnicity, at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (N = 927)

NHW (N = 631)*Hispanic (N = 216)*AA (N = 80)*PAA vs. NHWPHispanic vs. NHW
Age (years), mean ± SD9.2 ± 4.19.1 ± 4.39.8 ± 4.40.200.87
 <5124 (20)41 (19)11 (14)
 5 to <12340 (54)114 (53)43 (54)
 12 to <19167 (26)61 (28)26 (33)
Female sex290 (46)116 (54)39 (49)0.640.05
Health insurance
 Private490 (79)81 (38)39 (49)<0.001<0.001
 Children’s health plan or other government insurance102 (17)120 (57)39 (49)
 Military10 (2)5 (2)1 (1)
 None15 (2)6 (3)1 (1)
Family income<0.001<0.001
 <$25,00026 (6)49 (32)15 (42)
 $25,000–$49,99959 (14)43 (28)8 (22)
 $50,000–$74,99972 (17)27 (17)4 (11)
 $75,000–$99,99972 (17)12 (8)1 (3)
 ≥$100,000184 (45)24 (15)8 (22)
Parent education<0.001<0.001
 High school or less116 (23)120 (63)25 (50)
 Associate degree70 (14)34 (18)6 (12)
 BS/BA166 (33)28 (15)11 (22)
 MS/MA/professional degree155 (31)10 (5)8 (16)
BMI%, median (IQR)43 (10–71)64 (25–86)70 (26–90)0.01§0.002§
 <85%323 (85)108 (74)27 (63)
 85 to <95%33 (9)18 (12)11 (26)
 ≥95%24 (6)20 (14)5 (12)
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol), mean ± SD11.4 ± 2.3 (101 ± 26)11.4 ± 2.3 (101 ± 26)11.9 ± 2.4 (107 ± 26)0.130.60
 <10.0 (<86)165 (28)56 (27)18 (24)
 10.0 to <13.0 (86 to <119)269 (45)91 (44)30 (39)
 ≥13.0 (≥119)163 (27)59 (29)28 (37)
DKA196 (32)65 (31)37 (48)0.0040.85
Family history of T1D59 (9.4)21 (9.7)4 (5.0)0.230.83
Number of positive autoantibodies0.760.15
 None22 (6)9 (6)1 (2)
 183 (22)26 (19)10 (20)
 2153 (40)45 (32)26 (53)
 3123 (32)60 (43)12 (24)
Positive IAA241 (51)101 (59)27 (50)0.860.04
Positive GAD361 (73)153 (82)55 (80)0.240.03
Positive ICA329 (74)124 (74)41 (62)0.050.96
Tanner stage<0.0010.06
 1204 (68)81 (61)25 (50)
 230 (10)17 (13)6 (12)
 326 (9)7 (5)2 (4)
 424 (8)14 (11)5 (10)
 516 (5)14 (11)12 (24)
C-peptide (ng/mL), median (IQR)0.5 (0.3–0.8)0.5 (0.3–0.9)0.4 (0.3–0.8)0.110.63
Seasonality0.330.04
 Winter181 (29)60 (28)29 (36)
 Spring125 (20)32 (15)12 (15)
 Summer135 (21)66 (31)20 (25)
 Fall190 (30)58 (27)19 (24)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated. BA, Bachelor of Arts; BS, Bachelor of Science; IAA, insulin autoantibody; ICA, islet cell antibody; MA, Master of Arts; MS, Master of Science; T1D, type 1 diabetes.

  • *Number of participants with missing or “unknown” data (NHW/Hispanic/AA): health insurance (14/4/0), family income (218/61/44), parent education (124/24/30), BMI% (251/70/37), HbA1c (34/10/4), DKA (15/8/3), number of positive autoantibodies (250/76/31), positive insulin autoantibody (161/46/26), positive GAD (136/29/11), positive islet cell antibody (185/48/14), Tanner score (331/83/30), and C-peptide (399/106/34).

  • †BMI% adjusted for age and sex based on 2000 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention growth charts with exclusion of those <2 years of age.

  • P value adjusted for age and sex.

  • §BMI z score was used as dependent variable.

  • ‖Limited to those tested for all three autoantibodies (n = 570).

  • ¶Imputed as stage 1 for girls <8 years of age and boys <10 years of age.