Table 1

QI interventions designed to improve glycemic control: targets, specific strategies, and study designs

Targets of QI and specific strategiesRCT (n = 19)Controlled before-after analyses (n = 11)Uncontrolled before-after analyses and other designs (n = 16)Total (n = 46)
System
 Disease management10 (52.6)10 (90.9)11 (68.8)31 (67.4)
 Team changes8 (42.1)7 (36.6)7 (43.8)22 (47.8)
 Electronic registry3 (15.8)2 (18.2)3 (18.8)8 (17.4)
 Facilitated relay6 (31.6)1 (9.1)2 (12.5)9 (19.6)
 Continuous QI0 (0)1 (9.1)3 (18.8)4 (8.7)
 Enhancing efficiency3 (15.8)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)
 Standardizing care6 (31.6)2 (18.2)5 (31.3)13 (28.3)
Practitioner
 Audit and feedback6 (31.6)0 (0)4 (25.0)10 (21.7)
 Provider education3 (15.8)1 (9.1)2 (12.5)6 (13.0)
 Provider decision support4 (21.1)3 (27.3)4 (25.0)11 (23.9)
 Incentives for providers2 (10.5)0 (0)1 (6.3)3 (6.5)
Patient
 Tailoring care for group7 (36.8)0 (0)4 (25.0)11 (23.9)
 Patient education14 (73.7)8 (72.7)13 (81.3)35 (76.1)
 Patient self-management9 (47.4)9 (81.8)11 (68.8)29 (60.3)
 Patient reminders6 (31.6)2 (18.2)3 (18.8)11 (23.9)
 Incentives for patients3 (15.8)2 (18.2)2 (12.5)4 (8.7)
  • Data are n (%).