Table 2

Effects of acute events and chronic type 2 diabetes complications on total costs per quarter in GEE normal regression

VariableCoefficient estimate (SE)
Constant779.7*** (7.9)
Sex: male (Ref = female)−57.1*** (6.3)
Age-group (Ref = 70–79 years), years
 <50−128.3*** (12.6)
 50–59−116.3*** (9.2)
 60–69−69.2*** (8.4)
 >80−195.1*** (12.0)
Coefficient estimate (SE)
Event/condition (Ref = no)Quarter/time of event<1 year after the event>1 year after the event
 Diabetic foot639.3*** (30.8)369.2*** (17.0)356.0*** (23.0)
 Amputation13,630.3*** (482.0)2,665.9*** (168.8)1,967.9*** (319.3)
 Retinopathy17.5 (16.0)27.2 (14.2)39.1* (18.0)
 Blindness2,279.9 (177.3)487.1 (67.6)316.2 (80.3)
 Nephropathy2,699.3*** (47.2)702.0*** (19.3)432.7*** (21.4)
 ESRD22,037.6*** (700.4)5,476.4*** (195.5)4,605.9*** (293.0)
 Fatal MI8,046.2*** (950.8)NANA
 Nonfatal MI7,381.7*** (152.6)820.8*** (73.5)220.6** (71.3)
 Fatal IHD20,288.4*** (5,251.3)NANA
 Nonfatal IHD5,894.9*** (141.4)523.3*** (69.9)171.2*** (52.3)
 CHF3,258.5*** (55.3)868.7*** (24.0)549.7*** (24.4)
 Fatal stroke10,522.9*** (903.5)NANA
 Nonfatal stroke9,115.6*** (155.5)2,168.8*** (88.7)642.6*** (54.8)
 Angina pectoris2,041.9*** (50.4)242.2*** (27.6)106.3** (35.7)
 Death for other reasons5,589.0*** (124.2)NANA
History in 2012 (Ref = no)Coefficient estimate (SE)
 Diabetic foot372.5*** (13.9)
 Amputation2,017.4*** (171.1)
 Retinopathy63.2*** (9.3)
 Blindness196.2*** (47.5)
 Nephropathy408.8*** (11.1)
 ESRD6,902.3*** (164.3)
 Nonfatal MI52.1 (46.3)
 Nonfatal IHD566.1*** (25.4)
 CHF532.6*** (12.8)
 Angina pectoris−11.6 (19.4)
 Nonfatal stroke635.2*** (46.5)
Number of observations3,663,240
Number of patients316,220
  • NA, not applicable; Ref, reference.

  • *P <0.05.

  • **P <0.01.

  • ***P <0.001.

  • †The interactions between age and sex as well as threefold interactions with complications are omitted here for visibility reasons. The extended model as well as estimated costs by age-group and sex can be found in Supplementary Tables 7 and 8.

  • ‡“Event” refers to the quarter when the diabetes complication first occurred/started.