Table 1

Health insurance coverage among adults with diabetes by age, 2009 and 2016

Prevalence of health insurance coverage
Age 18–64 yearsAge ≥65 years
2009201620092016
n1,5811,7231,1201,796
Total84.7 (1.37)90.1 (1.03)*99.7 (0.19)99.5 (0.19)
Age (years)
 18–3978.2 (3.81)84.5 (3.20)NANA
 40–4984.4 (2.74)89.5 (2.71)NANA
 50–5985.9 (1.79)91.0 (1.63)NANA
 60–6487.0 (2.74)92.7 (1.43)NANA
 65–74NANA99.5 (0.30)99.3 (0.30)
 ≥75NANA99.8 (0.20)99.9 (0.11)
Sex
 Male84.8 (1.80)92.8 (1.22)*99.8 (0.19)99.5 (0.27)
 Female84.7 (1.71)87.6 (1.65)99.5 (0.33)99.5 (0.28)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white87.6 (1.83)92.6 (1.27)100.0 (0.0)99.9 (0.06)
 Non-Hispanic black85.4 (2.27)91.4 (1.94)99.8 (0.15)99.8 (0.16)
 Hispanic72.0 (3.63)81.9 (3.52)98.3 (1.51)96.9 (1.48)
  Mexican American71.6 (4.22)78.9 (4.87)97.5 (2.48)94.8 (2.44)
 Non-Hispanic Asian91.3 (4.28)95.1 (4.20)96.5 (2.43)100.0
 Non-Hispanic other68.3 (13.4)73.0 (6.36)100.0100.0
Education
 Less than high school71.4 (3.78)86.4 (2.49)*99.6 (0.31)98.2 (0.83)
 High school graduate86.2 (2.02)86.1 (2.48)99.4 (0.53)100.0
 Greater than high school education89.6 (1.40)93.4 (1.13)99.9 (0.06)99.9 (0.08)
Family income ($)
 <35,00075.7 (2.34)86.0 (2.00)*99.8 (0.10)99.3 (0.35)
 35,000–49,99976.7 (4.44)85.0 (3.82)100.099.3 (0.62)
 50,000–74,99990.6 (2.15)88.5 (2.63)100.099.3 (0.74)
 75,000–99,99994.9 (2.07)97.6 (1.59)97.5 (2.48)100.0
 ≥100,00096.0 (1.53)96.1 (2.01)98.7 (1.27)100.0
Marital status
 Married or living with partner86.2 (1.81)90.7 (1.36)99.6 (0.31)99.5 (0.30)
 Divorced or separated82.7 (3.11)88.9 (1.92)99.8 (0.17)99.1 (0.58)
 Widowed85.0 (5.34)95.3 (2.19)99.9 (0.11)99.8 (0.17)
 Never married80.2 (3.53)88.2 (2.59)98.4 (1.14)99.6 (0.40)
Diabetes duration (years)
 <580.8 (2.34)89.9 (1.73)*99.8 (0.15)98.5 (0.97)
 5–1587.3 (1.58)88.7 (1.77)99.5 (0.40)100.0
 >1587.6 (3.08)94.7 (1.21)99.7 (0.28)99.5 (0.29)
Diabetes medication
 Insulin only85.6 (3.38)92.5 (1.87)100.0100.0
 Oral only84.4 (1.74)90.1 (1.48)99.6 (0.28)99.3 (0.32)
 Insulin and oral90.7 (2.50)95.1 (1.33)99.3 (0.66)99.9 (0.13)
 None80.5 (2.92)83.1 (3.41)99.8 (0.15)99.5 (0.37)
Hypertension
 Yes86.7 (1.53)91.4 (1.06)99.9 (0.06)99.6 (0.18)
 No81.2 (2.21)87.4 (2.30)98.6 (0.99)99.1 (0.68)
Heart condition/disease
 Yes90.5 (1.91)93.1 (2.29)100.099.8 (0.11)
 No83.1 (1.58)89.2 (1.13)*99.4 (0.32)99.4 (0.30)
Weak or failing kidneys§
 Yes86.4 (4.73)93.4 (2.08)100.098.9 (1.07)
 No84.6 (1.36)89.9 (1.10)*99.6 (0.21)99.6 (0.17)
Vision problems
 Yes81.7 (3.43)89.0 (2.45)99.5 (0.46)99.5 (0.40)
 No85.3 (1.35)90.4 (1.20)*99.7 (0.21)99.5 (0.22)
Visited physician in past 12 months
 Yes87.6 (1.29)92.3 (0.98)*99.7 (0.20)99.7 (0.16)
 No68.8 (3.95)78.2 (3.51)99.3 (0.51)97.6 (1.68)
Visited eye doctor in past 12 months
 Yes93.0 (0.99)94.5 (0.89)99.8 (0.14)99.7 (0.17)
 No75.3 (2.43)84.9 (1.93)*99.3 (0.50)99.0 (0.53)
Visited foot doctor in past 12 months
 Yes94.0 (2.86)93.0 (1.90)99.3 (0.62)99.9 (0.13)
 No82.8 (1.41)89.4 (1.21)*99.8 (0.14)99.4 (0.27)
  • Data are % (SE). NA, not applicable.

  • *P < 0.01, 2016 vs. 2009.

  • P < 0.05, 2016 vs. 2009.

  • ‡Includes coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, heart attack, and other heart conditions.

  • §Weak or failing kidneys does not include kidney stones, bladder infections, or incontinence.

  • ‖Trouble seeing even with glasses or contact lenses.