Table 4

Patients with severe hypoglycemia: characteristics at last IM, FM, or endocrinology visit compared with those at the hypoglycemia event

VariableCharacteristic at last visit (N = 366)Characteristic at severe hypoglycemia event (N = 366)P
Diabetes medication*<0.001
 No medication20 (5.5)15 (4.1)
 AGI alone2 (0.5)1 (0.3)
 DPP-4 inhibitor alone3 (0.8)4 (1.1)
 GLP-1 agonist alone0 (0)0 (0)
 Metformin alone24 (6.6)14 (3.8)
 Meglitinide alone0 (0)0 (0)
 TZD alone3 (0.8)0 (0)
 Insulin alone88 (24)107 (29.2)
 Insulin + other diabetes medication23 (6.3)36 (9.8)
 Insulin + sulfonylureas + other diabetes medication41 (11.2)87 (23.8)
 No insulin and no sulfonylureas + 2 or more diabetes medications4 (1.1)0 (0)
 SGLT2 inhibitor alone0 (0)0 (0)
 Sulfonylureas alone59 (16.1)45 (12.3)
 Sulfonylureas + other diabetes medication99 (27)57 (15.6)
Number of diabetes medications0.002
 020 (5.4)15 (4.1)
 1–2249 (68)210 (57.4)
 ≥397 (26.5)141 (38.5)
History of nonsevere hypoglycemia diagnosis33 (9)42 (11.5)0.27
Age at visit, years71.85 (61.35, 80.54)72.04 (61.48, 80.75)0.74
BMI, kg/m229.2 (25.0, 34.1)29.22 (24.68, 34.38)0.77
HbA1c, % [mmol/mol]6.8 (6.1, 8) [51 (43, 64)]6.7 (6, 7.8) [50 (42, 62)]0.41
Dementia25 (6.8)33 (9)0.27
Cognitive impairment36 (9.8)47 (12.8)0.20
Cardiovascular disease260 (71)284 (77.6)0.04
Congestive heart failure121 (33.1)144 (39.3)0.08
Chronic kidney disease134 (36.6)160 (43.7)0.05
Depression96 (26.2)104 (28.4)0.51
Other psychiatric diagnoses131 (35.8)153 (41.8)0.10
Alcohol or substance abuse61 (16.7)71 (19.4)0.34
Charlson comorbidity index4 (3, 7)5.5 (3, 7)<0.001
  • Data are n (%) or median (IQR).

  • *Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise χ2 test for insulin + sulfonylureas + other diabetes medication versus sulfonylureas alone, as well as for insulin + sulfonylureas + other diabetes medication versus sulfonylureas + other diabetes medication, is significant.

  • †Bonferroni-adjusted pairwise χ2 test for one to two medications versus three or more medications is significant.