Table 3

Results of base-case lifetime CEA

Lifetime probability of
 Diabetic retinopathy, %
  Background 33.527.3
  Proliferative 28.924.6
 Macular edema, %8.46.4
 Blindness, %1.91.8
 Macroalbuminuria, %19.717.2
 End-stage renal disease, %11.710.1
 Neuropathy, %33.227.3
 Amputation, %8.17.1
 Myocardial infarction, %37.837.0
 Stroke, %7.27.0
 Angina, %20.620.6
 Heart failure, %11.110.7
Expected life–years24.2925.01
 Difference in expected life-years0.72
Discounted QALYs, means12.7813.32
 Difference in QALYs, mean0.54
Discounted total costs, mean305,278360,486
 Difference in costs, mean55,208
ICER, mean (95% CI*)98,108 (90,298–105,144)
  • *CI of the mean. The CI was calculated by bootstrapping simulation samples (each simulation scenario consists of 2,000,000 simulation samples (1,000,000 for each study arm), which were created by first generating 1,000 sample patients and then simulating their lifetime each 1,000 times per study arm).