Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study cohort

VariableNumber missingAll patients = 50,439
Diabetes medication
 No medication10,357 (20.5)
 AGI30 (0.1)
 DPP-4 inhibitor alone564 (1.1)
 GLP-1 agonist alone163 (0.3)
 Metformin alone18,694 (37.1)
 Meglitinide alone35 (0.1)
 TZD alone915 (1.8)
 Insulin alone2,201 (4.4)
 Insulin + other diabetes medication2,030 (4.0)
 Insulin + sulfonylureas + other diabetes medication1,869 (3.7)
 No insulin and no sulfonylureas + 2 or more diabetes medications3,077 (6.1)
 SGLT2 inhibitor alone22 (0)
 Sulfonylureas alone2,991 (5.9)
 Sulfonylureas + other diabetes medication7,491 (14.9)
Number of diabetes medications
 010,357 (20.5)
 1–234,291 (68)
 ≥35,791 (11.5)
Age at entering cohort (years)61.0 (51.9, 69.9)
Race1,222 (2.4)
 Caucasian37,386 (74.1)
 Black8,439 (16.8)
 Asian/Pacific Islander753 (1.5)
 Other2,639 (5.2)
Sex1 (0)
 Female24,344 (48.3)
 Male26,094 (51.7)
Income (in thousands)5,906 (12)54.2 (39.4, 73.0)
BMI, kg/m212,687 (25)32.4 (28.3, 37.8)
HbA1c, % [mmol/mol]20,104 (40)6.9 (6.5, 8) [52 (48, 64)]
Dementia627 (1.2)
Cognitive impairment810 (1.6)
Cardiovascular disease16,605 (32.9)
Congestive heart failure2,984 (5.9)
Chronic kidney disease2,577 (5.1)
Depression7,464 (14.8)
Other psychiatric diagnoses10,984 (21.8)
Alcohol or substance abuse4,604 (9.1)
Charlson comorbidity index1 (1, 2)
History of hypoglycemia412 (0.8)
  • Data are n (%) or median (IQR).