Table 1

Baseline characteristics of patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery

Patient characteristicsNo DM (n = 8,143,417)DM (n = 2,438,204)
Age, years (±SD)65.44 (±12.6)66.72 (±11.2)
Female sex58.1 (4,716,623)51.7 (1,259,175)
Race/ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic white66.8 (5,437,647)59.1 (1,441,419)
 Non-Hispanic black6.7 (547,640)11.7 (285,680)
 Hispanic4.8 (391,529)8.5 (207,028)
 Other3.6 (293,191)4.6 (111,097)
 Unknown18.1 (1,473,410)16.1 (392,980)
Obesity8.6 (697,195)18.8 (457,376)
Tobacco use20.9 (1,704,669)19.7 (480,091)
Hypertension51.8 (4,221,563)78.2 (1,906,909)
Hyperlipidemia24.5 (1,995,723)41.2 (1,003,336)
Chronic kidney disease4.9 (402,164)16.4 (398,751)
End-stage renal disease1.3 (107,836)6.1 (148,278)
Coronary artery disease14.3 (1,166,484)29.5 (719,029)
Prior PCI3.1 (249,641)5.7 (138,076)
Prior CABG3.6 (291,775)8.3 (203,314)
Peripheral arterial disease5.5 (449,900)11.9 (290,923)
Valvular heart disease4.2 (345,860)4.3 (104,844)
History of heart failure5.2 (423,534)11.4 (278,898)
History of venous thromboembolism2.5 (202,014)2.7 (66,852)
Chronic pulmonary disease16.3 (1,324,354)18.6 (454,288)
Alcohol abuse2.3 (183,818)1.5 (37,578)
Malignancy5.7 (467,405)4.6 (113,130)
Anemia13.7 (1,115,113)20.9 (509,488)
Elective surgery62.5 (5,075,736)54.1 (1,316,032)
Surgery type
 Endocrine1.2 (99,209)1.0 (23,605)
 General21.9 (1,783,831)19.6 (478,344)
 GU7.6 (620,146)6.2 (150,150)
 Neurosurgery5.9 (482,674)4.9 (119,455)
 Ob/Gyn13.7 (1,118,770)5.7 (139,120)
 Otolaryngology0.8 (63,448)0.6 (14,879)
 Orthopedic40.0 (3,258,728)40.8 (994,493)
 Thoracic2.3 (187,333)1.9 (45,595)
 Transplant0.2 (20,269)0.5 (11,895)
 Vascular9.3 (756,959)15.4 (376,469)
 Skin and breast3.8 (311,435)6.3 (154,159)
  • All values are percentage (n), unless otherwise indicated. GU, genitourinary; Ob/Gyn, obstetric and gynecologic; RCRI, revised cardiac risk index.