Table 3

Sensitivity analysis of primary maternal glycemic and infant birth weight outcomes

OutcomeDiet subgroupN of studiesN of womenEffect estimateI2 (%)
Maternal glycemic outcomes
Mean [95% CI]
Change in fasting glucose (mg/dL)All diets10575−1.98 [−5.41, 1.45]74
Low GI (26,29,30)3195−5.33 [−6.91, −3.76]0
DASH00Not estimable
Low carbohydrate (12,25)2423.66 [−4.42, 11.73]57
Fat modification (28,35)21094.88 [−1.45, 11.21]0
Soy protein (14,27)2130−7.51 [−20.31, 5.30]90
Behavior (24)199−1.50 [−6.47, 3.47]
Ethnic00Not estimable
Change in postprandial glucose (mg/dL)All diets7421−5.90 [−7.93, −3.88]0
Low GI (26,30)2121−7.08 [−12.07, −2.08]4
DASH00Not estimable
Low carbohydrate (25)130−3.00 [−8.15, 2.15]
Fat modification (28,35)2109−4.85 [−13.32, 3.62]40
Soy protein (14)162−1.05 [−9.73, 7.63]
Behavior (24)199−6.90 [−9.85, −3.95]
Ethnic00Not estimable
Change in post-breakfast glucose (mg/dL)All diets3175−4.76 [−9.13, −0.38]34
Low GI (30)183−8.6 [−14.11, −3.09]
Low carbohydrate (25)130−3.00 [−8.15, 2.15]
Soy protein (14)162−1.05 [−9.73, 7.63]
Change in post-lunch glucose (mg/dL)All diets2924.50 [−1.90, 10.90]0
Low carbohydrate (25)1304.00 [−4.56, 12.56]
Soy protein (14)1625.14 [−4.51, 14.79]
Change in post-dinner glucose (mg/dL)All diets2921.81 [−5.28, 8.90]0
Low carbohydrate (25)1301.00 [−8.14, 10.14]
Soy protein (14)1623.03 [−8.20, 14.26]
Change in HOMA-IR (µIU/mL × mmol/L)All diets3179−0.74 [−2.09, 0.61]75
DASH00Not estimable
Low carbohydrate (12)1120.60 [−1.90, 3.10]
Soy protein (27)168−2.00 [−3.17, −0.83]
Behavior (24)199−0.30 [−0.71, 0.11]
Change in HbA1c (%)All diets5353−0.03 [−0.11, 0.05]87
Low GI (29,30)21670.01 [−0.02, 0.03]0
DASH00Not estimable
Fat modification (28)1250.10 [−0.14, 0.34]
Soy protein (14)162−0.01 [−0.07, 0.05]
Behavior (24)199−0.19 [−0.26, −0.12]
Ethnic diet00Not estimable
RR [95% CI]
Medication treatmentAll diets118840.82 [0.65, 1.04]24
Low GI (13,26,29,30)42930.80 [0.55, 1.14]34
DASH00Not estimable
Low carbohydrate (31)11501.00 [0.75, 1.34]
Energy restriction (32)11171.05 [0.47, 2.34]
Fat modification (35)184Not estimable
Soy protein (14,27)21300.44 [0.21, 0.91]0
Behavior (24)1990.61 [0.15, 2.42]
Ethnic00Not estimable
Fiber (33)111Not estimable
Infant birth weight outcomes
Mean [95% CI]
Birth weight (g)All diets12702−74.88 [−144.86, −4.90]1
Low GI (13,26,29,30)4276−54.25 [−178.98, 70.47]0
DASH00Not estimable
Low carbohydrate (12,25)24257.73 [−164.93, 280.39]0
Energy restriction (32)1122194.00 [−42.58, 430.58]
Fat modification (28,35)2109−139.61 [−294.80, 15.58]0
Soy protein (14,27)2131−184.67 [−319.35, −49.98]0
Ethnic diet00Not estimable
Fiber (33)122−94.00 [−446.68, 258.68]
RR [95% CI]
Large for gestational ageAll diets76271.00 [0.66, 1.53]0
Low GI (13,26,29)31931.33 [0.54, 3.31]0
Low carbohydrate (31)11490.51 [0.13, 1.95]
Energy restriction (32)11231.17 [0.65, 2.12]
Soy protein (14)1630.45 [0.04, 4.76]
Behavior (24)1990.73 [0.25, 2.14]
Ethnic diet00Not estimable
MacrosomiaAll97290.73 [0.40, 1.31]0
Low GI (13,26,29,30)42760.46 [0.15, 1.46]0
DASH00Not estimable0
Low carbohydrate (25,31)21790.20 [0.02, 1.69]
Energy restriction (32)11221.56 [0.61, 3.94]
Fat modification (35)1840.35 [0.04, 3.23]
Soy protein (27)1680.60 [0.16, 2.31]
Ethnic diet00Not estimable