Table 1

Characteristics of participants (n = 17,272) and studies (n = 63) included in meta-analyses

Baseline participant-level characteristics*
Age, years49.7 (7.9)
Pacific Islander/Indigenous29.7%
Weight, kg85.0 (11.0)
BMI, kg/m231.3 (4.2)
FBG, mmol/L5.7 (0.6)
2-h PPG, mmol/L6.4 (1.7)
A1C, %5.6 (0.5)
A1C, mmol/mol37.7
Study-level characteristics
Country of study
 U.S.41 (65)
 U.K.5 (8)
 Australia4 (6)
 New Zealand3 (5)
 The Netherlands2 (3)
 Finland2 (3)
 Canada, Greece, Israel, Japan, Spain, and Norway (one each)6 (10)
 Pre/post single group study25 (40)
 Nonrandomized controlled study16 (25)
 Randomized controlled study22 (35)
Intervention strategy
 Group diabetes education from community member28 (44)
 Group diabetes education from health care professional31 (49)
 Individual counseling from health care professional4 (6)
 Education/counseling delivered using technology8 (13)
Delivery Setting
 Remote delivery8 (13)
 Community setting39 (62)
 Clinical setting25 (40)
Provider Type
 Lay community member28 (44)
 Health care professional33 (52)
 Technology assisted7 (11)
  • Data are mean or mean (SD) for participant-level characteristics, unless otherwise noted, and n (%) for study-level characteristics. Individual study characteristics are presented in Supplementary Table 1.

  • *Baseline participant-level characteristics are weighted averages by the number of participants in each study.

  • †Some studies used more than one of these strategies/setting/provider, which makes the study count go over 63.

  • ‡Technologies used to provide group/individual education or counseling include interactive voice response calls, video conference, internet, cable television, and DVDs.