Table 1

Pregnancy outcomes according to third-trimester FVPG in OCC

Non-GDM (n = 896 [59.1%])GDM (n = 620 [40.1%])HAPO FVPG category numberOCC FVPG C8 (>5.8 mmol/L)
C1 (2.5–4.2 mmol/L)C2 (4.2–4.4 mmol/L)C3 (4.5–4.7 mmol/L)C4 (4.8–4.9 mmol/L)C5 (5.0–5.2 mmol/L)C6 (5.3–5.5 mmol/L)C7 (5.6–5.8 mmol/L)
HAPO cohort (blinded) (n = 23,217 for fasting glucose)17.4%32.3%26.6%11.8%8.1%2.9%0.9%Excluded; 2.9% unblinded
OCC (n = 1,516)8 (0.6)99 (6.8)311 (21.5)336 (23.2)377 (26.1)235 (16.3)80 (5.5)70 (extra 4.8)
BW, g (n = 1,493)§3,480 (3,145–3,825)3,598 (3,280–3,920)3,408 (3,268–3,700)3,403 (3,105–3,700)3,500 (3,180–3,805)3,485 (3,128–3,840)3,535 (3,215–3,900)3,594 (3,280–3,900)3,655 (3,360–3,933)3,700 (3,293–4,078)
BWZ (n = 1,490)§−0.23 (−0.87 to 0.42)−0.01 (−0.61 to 0.75)0.39 (−0.97 to 0.51)−0.41 (−1.04 to 0.05)−0.19 (−0.78 to 0.40)−0.25 (−0.92 to 0.42)−0.11 (−0.75 to 0.62)−0.04 (−0.59 to 0.65)0.18 (−0.34 to 0.85)0.35 (−0.65 to 1.07)
LGA neonate (n = 1,490)*§57 (6.5)64 (10.4)1 (16.7)1 (1.0)20 (6.6)21 (6.3)33 (8.8)17 (7.3)14 (17.5)14 (20.6)
PI, kg/m3 (n = 1,483)§24.8 (23.2–26.4)25.3 (23.7–26.9)24.4 (22.9–25.9)24.4 (22.9–26.0)25.0 (23.3–26.9)24.6 (23.3–26.3)25.2 (23.5–26.5)25.2 (23.8–26.9)26.2 (24.3–27.4)25.5 (23.8–27.1)
Abdominal circumference, cm (n = 1,489)§33 (32–35)33 (32–35)33.5 (32.5–34)33 (32–34)33 (32–34)34 (32–35)33 (32–35)34 (32–35)34 (32–35)34 (32–36)
Gestational hypertension and preeclampsia*46 (5.1)58 (9.4)05 (5.0)15 (4.8)16 (4.8)35 (9.3)15 (6.4)9 (11.3)9 (12.9)
C-section (n = 1,494)194 (22.1)130 (21.1)1 (12.5)21 (21.9)67 (22.3)69 (20.8)78 (20.8)51 (21.8)14 (17.5)23 (33.8)
Stillbirth (n = 1,494)1 (0.1)2 (0.3)001 (0.3)01 (0.2)001 (1.4)
  • Data are presented as median (range) or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. GDM defined as fasting WHO2013 criterion (≥5.1 mmol/L). C1–7 follow the FVPG quantiles used in HAPO. FVPG C1–7 cover the range 2.5–5.8 mmol/L to enable matching with the blinded HAPO cohort; C8 includes OCC women with FVPG >5.8 mmol/L. The HAPO study unblinded women with any of the following: FVPG >5.8 mmol/L, 2-h OGTT VPG >11.1 mmol/L, any VPG <2.5 mmol/L, or random VPG in late pregnancy ≥8.9 mmol/L; 2.9% of the study population was unblinded. The number of women unblinded in HAPO owing to FVPG >5.8 mmol/L has not been reported. Women treated for GDM according to Danish diagnostic criteria were excluded. Outcome variables are missing in a small number of women delivering in hospitals other than Odense University Hospital; in these women, perinatal outcomes were not reported to the OCC database. LGA comparisons between adjacent fasting glucose categories (C1–8) are as follows: C2 vs. C1, P = 0.007; C3 vs. C2, P = 0.03; C4 vs. C3, P = 0.88; C5 vs. C4, P = 0.22; C6 vs. C5, P = 0.51; C7 vs. C6, P = 0.008; and C8 vs. C7, P = 0.63. LGA frequency in C7–C8 combined vs. C1–C6 combined: P < 0.001.

  • *P < 0.05 (FVPG <5.1 vs. ≥5.1 mmol/L);

  • P < 0.01 (FVPG <5.1 vs. ≥5.1 mmol/L);

  • P < 0.05 across HAPO categories;

  • §P < 0.01 across HAPO categories.