Table 2

Pooled analyses of primary maternal glycemic and infant birth weight outcomes

OutcomeDiet subgroupN of studiesN of womenEffect estimateI2 (%)
Maternal glycemic outcomes
Mean [95% CI]
Change in fasting glucose (mg/dL)All diets13662−4.07 [−7.58, −0.57]86
Low GI (26,29,30)3195−5.28 [−6.83, −3.73]0
DASH (22,36)267−11.55 [−14.00, −9.09]0
Low carbohydrate (12,25)2423.81 [−4.29, 11.92]69
Fat modification (28,35)21094.87 [−0.44, 10.18]0
Soy protein (14,27)2130−7.47 [−20.28, 5.34]91
Behavior (24)199−1.50 [−5.66, 2.66]
Ethnic (34)120−25.34 [−37.57, −13.11]
Change in postprandial glucose (mg/dL)All diets9475−7.78 [−12.27, −3.29]63
Low GI (26,30)2121−7.08 [−12.07, −2.08]4
DASH (22)134−45.22 [−68.97, −21.47]
Low carbohydrate (25)130−3.00 [−10.06, 4.06]
Fat modification (28,35)2109−6.43 [−13.08, 0.22]0
Soy protein (14)162−1.05 [−11.03, 8.93]
Behavior (24)199−6.90 [−11.68, −2.12]
Ethnic (34)120−16.28 [−22.83, −9.73]
Change in post-breakfast glucose (mg/dL)All3175−4.76 [−9.13, −0.38]34
Low GI (30)183−8.6 [−14.11, −3.09]
Low carbohydrate (25)130−3.00 [−8.15, 2.15]
Soy protein (14)162−1.05 [−9.73, 7.63]
Change in post-lunch glucose (mg/dL)All2924.50 [−1.90, 10.90]0
Low carbohydrate (25)1304.00 [−4.56, 12.56]
Soy protein (14)1625.14 [−4.51, 14.79]
Change in post-dinner glucose (mg/dL)All2921.81 [−5.28, 8.90]13
Low carbohydrate (25)1301.00 [−8.14, 10.14]
Soy protein (14)1623.03 [−8.20, 14.26]
Change in HOMA-IR (µIU/mL × mmol/L)All4212−1.10 [−2.26, 0.07]90
DASH (36)133−1.90 [−2.36, −1.44]
Low carbohydrate (12)1120.60 [−1.90, 3.10]
Soy protein (27)168−2.00 [−3.17, −0.83]
Behavior (24)199−0.30 [−0.71, 0.11]
Change in HbA1c (%)All7407−0.05 [−0.13, 0.02]84
Low GI (29,30)21670.01 [−0.02, 0.03]0
DASH (22)134−0.25 [−0.42, −0.08]
Fat modification (28)1250.10 [−0.14, 0.34]
Soy protein (14)162−0.01 [−0.07, 0.05]
Behavior (24)199−0.19 [−0.26, −0.12]
Ethnic diet (34)120−0.05 [−0.27, 0.17]
RR [95% CI]
Medication treatmentAll1510230.65 [0.47, 0.88]55
Low GI (13,26,29,30)42930.80 [0.55, 1.14]34
DASH (22,23,36)31190.29 [0.17, 0.50]0
Low carbohydrate (31)11501.00 [0.75, 1.34]
Energy restriction (32)11171.05 [0.47, 2.34]
Fat modification (35)184Not estimable
Soy protein (14,27)21300.44 [0.21, 0.91]0
Behavior (24)1990.61 [0.15, 2.42]
Ethnic (34)1202.00 [0.21, 18.69]
Fiber (33)111Not estimable
Infant birth weight outcomes
Mean [95% CI]
Birth weight (g)All16841−170.62 [−333.64, −7.60]88
Low GI (13,26,29,30)4276−54.25 [−178.98, 70.47]0
DASH (22,23,36)3119−598.19 [−663.09, −533.30]0
Low carbohydrate (12,25)24257.73 [−164.93, 280.39]0
Energy restriction (32)1122194.00 [−42.58, 430.58]
Fat modification (28,35)2109−139.61 [−294.80, 15.58]0
Soy protein (14,27)2131−184.67 [−319.35, −49.98]0
Ethnic diet (34)120−370.00 [−928.87, 188.87]
Fiber (33)122−94.00 [−446.68, 258.68]
RR [95% CI]
Large for gestational ageAll 86470.96 [0.63, 1.46]0
Low GI (13,26,29)31931.33 [0.54, 3.31]0
Low carbohydrate (31)11490.51 [0.13, 1.95]
Energy restriction (32)11231.17 [0.65, 2.12]
Soy protein (14)1630.45 [0.04, 4.76]
Behavior (24)1990.73 [0.25, 2.14]
Ethnic diet (34)1200.14 [0.01, 2.45]
MacrosomiaAll128340.49 [0.27, 0.88]11
Low GI (13,26,29,30)42760.46 [0.15, 1.46]0
DASH (23,36)2850.12 [0.03, 0.51]0
Low carbohydrate (25,31)21790.20 [0.02, 1.69]
Energy restriction (32)11221.56 [0.61, 3.94]
Fat modification (35)1840.35 [0.04, 3.23]
Soy protein (27)1680.60 [0.16, 2.31]
Ethnic diet (34)1200.20 [0.01, 3.70]