Table 2

Baseline characteristics by treatment condition: the GEM trial

Intervention, n = 967Usual care, n = 1,047Entire sample, n = 2,014
Age (years)
 18–2445 (4.7)48 (4.6)93 (4.6)
 25–29213 (22.0)260 (24.8)473 (23.5)
 30–34380 (39.3)370 (35.4)750 (37.2)
 35–39255 (26.4)287 (27.4)542 (26.9)
 40–5074 (7.7)82 (7.8)156 (7.8)
Race/ethnicity
 Asian420 (43.4)423 (40.4)843 (41.9)
 Non-Hispanic white231 (23.9)269 (25.7)500 (24.8)
 Hispanic215 (22.2)235 (22.5)450 (22.3)
 African American38 (3.9)50 (4.8)88 (4.4)
 Multiracial32 (3.3)33 (3.2)65 (3.2)
 Other18 (1.9)13 (1.2)31 (1.5)
 Pacific Islander11 (1.1)22 (2.1)33 (1.6)
 Missing2 (0.2)2 (0.2)4 (0.2)
Prepregnancy BMI (kg/m2)
 15.9–18.4 (underweight)13 (1.3)14 (1.3)27 (1.3)
 18.5–24.9 (normal weight)328 (33.9)332 (31.7)660 (32.8)
 25.0–29.9 (overweight)286 (29.6)308 (29.4)594 (29.5)
 30.0–59.7 (obese)340 (35.2)393 (37.5)733 (36.5)
Gestational weight trajectory at GDM diagnosis*
 Gaining too slowly166 (17.2)162 (15.6)328 (16.4)
 On track270 (27.9)281 (27.1)551 (27.5)
 Gaining too quickly224 (23.2)228 (22.0)452 (22.6)
 Exceeded307 (31.8)365 (35.2)672 (33.6)
Parity
 0406 (42.0)427 (40.8)833 (41.4)
 1321 (33.2)357 (34.1)678 (33.7)
 2153 (15.8)133 (12.7)286 (14.2)
 3+74 (7.7)110 (10.5)184 (9.1)
 Missing13 (1.3)20 (1.9)33 (1.6)
Gestational age at GDM diagnosis (weeks)
 <24215 (22.2)228 (21.8)443 (22.0)
 24–28538 (55.6)553 (52.8)1,091 (54.2)
 29–34214 (22.1)266 (25.4)480 (23.8)
  • Data are n (%). *Weight at GDM diagnosis in relation to the end-of-pregnancy weight goal (see Table 1).