Table 1

Baseline demographic and physical characteristics, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responses from the hyperglycemic clamp and OGTT by treatment group

Glargine followed by metformin (n = 44)Metformin alone(n = 47)
Female, n (%)27 (61.4)38 (80.9)
Age (years)14.9 ± 2.013.9 ± 2.1*
Tanner stage V, n (%)32 (72.7)25 (53.2)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 White13 (29.5)12 (25.5)
 Black14 (31.8)9 (19.1)
 Hispanic14 (31.8)20 (42.6)
 Other3 (6.8)6 (12.8)
Weight (kg)102.0 ± 25.797.7 ± 23.3
BMI (kg/m2)36.5 ± 6.436.9 ± 6.4
BMI percentile98.4 ± 2.598.8 ± 1.3
BMI z score2.3 ± 0.42.4 ± 0.3
Waist circumference (cm)109.8 ± 15.8109.6 ± 12.4
HbA1c
 %5.7 ± 0.65.7 ± 0.6
 mmol/mol39.2 ± 6.638.6 ± 6.3
IGT, n (%)26 (59)28 (60)
Type 2 diabetes, n (%)18 (41)19 (40)
Metformin use at baseline, n (%)10 (22.7)11 (23.4)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)120.7 ± 7.8119.5 ± 8.7
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)67.6 ± 7.770.1 ± 7.9
Hypertension, n (%)9 (20.5)15 (31.9)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.11 (0.39, 3.14)1.17 (0.45, 3.06)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.0 ± 0.31.0 ± 0.2
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.3 ± 0.82.1 ± 0.6
Hyperglycemic clamp variables
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)6.04 ± 0.856.11 ± 1.10
 Fasting C-peptide (nmol/L)1.63 ± 0.551.82 ± 0.58
 Fasting insulin (pmol/L)211.1 (54.8, 813.5)247.4 (74.1, 825.4)
 Steady-state C-peptide (nmol/L)5.22 (2.44, 11.15)5.09 (2.32, 11.19)
 ACPRmax (nmol/L)7.29 (3.29, 16.16)8.12 (3.42, 19.26)
 ACPRg (nmol/L)1.06 (0.10, 11.66)1.14 (0.14, 9.02)
 Glucose infusion rate (M) (mmol/kg/min)0.025 ± 0.0130.023 ± 0.010
 Steady-state insulin (I) (pmol/L)1,391 (281, 6,874)1,371 (286, 6,572)
 M/I (× 10e−5 mmol/kg/min per pmol/L)1.60 (0.35, 7.38)1.54 (0.35, 6.76)
OGTT variables
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)6.0 ± 0.86.1 ± 1.1
 2-h glucose (mmol/L)10.2 ± 2.510.2 ± 2.8
  • Data are mean ± SD or geometric mean (95% CI) for nonnormally distributed variables.

  • *P < 0.03; all other P values were not significant.