Table 1

Select baseline physical and demographic characteristics, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell responses from the hyperglycemic clamp for youth and all adults

Pediatric medication (n = 66) [1]Adult medication (n = 267) [2]Adult surgery (n = 88) [3]All adults (n = 355) [4]P (ANOVA) (1 vs. 2 vs. 3)P (all adults vs. pediatric) (1 vs. 4)
Demographic characteristics
 Age (years)14.2 ± 2.053.9 ± 8.949.1 ± 9.852.7 ± 9.4<0.001<0.001
 Female, n (%)47 (71.2)114 (42.7)69 (78.4)183 (51.5)<0.0010.005
 Race/ethnicity, n (%)<0.001<0.001
  White19 (28.8)141 (52.8)25 (28.4)166 (46.8)
  Black14 (21.2)81 (30.3)16 (18.2)97 (27.3)
  Hispanic25 (37.9)28 (10.5)40 (45.5)68 (19.2)
  Asian2 (3.0)11 (4.1)7 (8.0)18 (5.1)
  American Indian0 (0.0)1 (0.4)0 (0.0)1 (0.3)
  Mixed6 (9.1)4 (1.5)0 (0.0)4 (1.1)
  Other0 (0.0)1 (0.4)0 (0.0)1 (0.3)
 Weight (kg)98.9 ± 22.6102.1 ± 19.896.8 ± 11.4100.8 ± 18.20.0570.454
 BMI (kg/m2)36.6 ± 6.035.0 ± 5.735.4 ± 2.835.1 ± 5.10.0930.035
 Triponderal index (kg/m3)22.4 ± 3.520.6 ± 3.621.5 ± 2.020.8 ± 3.3<0.001<0.001
 Waist circumference (cm)109.0 ± 14.2111.8 ± 13.5105.8 ± 7.5110.3 ± 12.6<0.0010.475
Glycemic characteristics
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)38.54 ± 6.1139.30 ± 4.2440.66 ± 4.5539.64 ± 4.350.0120.080
 IGT, n (%)53 (80.3)197 (73.8)54 (61.4)251 (70.7)0.0220.147
Hyperglycemic clamp parameters
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)6.03 ± 0.976.09 ± 0.566.18 ± 0.836.11 ± 0.630.4160.430
 Fasting C-peptide (nmol/L)1.67 ± 0.531.22 ± 0.471.23 ± 0.381.22 ± 0.45<0.001<0.001
 Fasting insulin (pmol/L)214.1 (62.2, 736.7)103.6 (36.6, 293.5)112.9 (39.9, 319.0)105.8 (37.3, 299.9)<0.001<0.001
 ACPRg (nmol/L)1.24 (0.14, 11.18)0.57 (0.10, 3.25)0.49 (0.07, 3.46)0.55 (0.09, 3.31)<0.001<0.001
 AIRg (pmol/L)499.3 (55.4, 4,501.5)174.4 (23.7, 1,281.3)135.2 (11.0, 1,657.4)163.8 (19.3, 1,390.6)<0.001<0.001
 Steady-state (second-phase) C-peptide response (nmol/L)5.19 (2.50, 10.74)3.95 (1.96, 7.98)3.55 (1.60, 7.84)3.85 (1.85, 7.99)<0.001<0.001
 Steady-state (second-phase) insulin response (pmol/L)1,370.3 (298.6, 6,288.0)636.3 (157.4, 2,572.8)539.1 (123.4, 2,355.7)610.7 (147.4, 2,530.4)<0.001<0.001
 ACPRmax (nmol/L)7.85 (3.7, 16.66)4.89 (2.03, 11.78)4.72 (1.6, 13.93)4.85 (1.91, 12.32)<0.001<0.001
 AIRmax (pmol/L)5,409.4 (2,196.2, 13,323.6)3,144.1 (1,113.4, 8,878.5)3,084.2 (897.1, 10,603.7)3,129.1 (1,053.4, 9,295.3)<0.001<0.001
 Glucose disposal rate (mmol/kg/min)0.025 ± 0.0100.022 ± 0.0100.021 ± 0.0120.021 ± 0.0100.0200.007
 M/I (×10−5 mmol/kg/min per pmol/L)1.69 (0.37, 7.69)3.06 (0.72, 12.97)3.35 (0.89, 12.53)3.13 (0.76, 12.87)<0.001<0.001
 Fasting C-peptide/fasting insulin (×10−2 nmol/pmol)0.75 (0.31, 1.81)1.1 (0.61, 1.99)1.04 (0.61, 1.76)1.09 (0.61, 1.93)<0.001<0.001
  • Data are mean ± SD or geometric mean (95% CI) unless otherwise indicated. P values for nonnormally distributed data based on log-transformed values. “Other” for race/ethnicity includes mixed, Asian, American Indian, and other.