Table 2

Baseline characteristics of beneficiaries who had antidiabetic therapy initiated or intensified vs. not within 6 months after HbA1c ≥8% (64 mmol/mol), 2008–2015

Initiation cohortIntensification cohort
InitiatedNot initiatedIntensifiedNot intensified
N (total)6,1403,6598,9721,969
Age-group (years)
 18–30171 (63)99 (37)78 (75)26 (25)
 31–40826 (66)418 (34)610 (76)189 (24)
 41–501,969 (64)1,111 (36)2,303 (81)544 (19)
 51–602,461 (62)1,501 (38)4,277 (83)871 (17)
 61–65713 (57)530 (43)1,704 (83)339 (17)
Sex
 Male3,626 (63)2,146 (37)5,301 (82)1,125 (18)
 Female2,514 (62)1,513 (38)3,671 (81)844 (19)
Race, %*
 White64626563
 Black18201719
 Hispanic/Latino21212020
SES*
 Percent below poverty15151415
 Percent college educated28272828
Population density
 Urban5,591 (62)3,373 (38)8,170 (82)1,779 (18)
 Rural5,591 (62)261 (34)725 (81)175 (19)
 Unknown40 (62)25 (38)77 (84)15 (16)
Geographic region
 Midwest504 (63)298 (37)855 (83)180 (17)
 Northeast1,362 (55)1,115 (45)2,002 (81)469 (19)
 South3,049 (65)1,676 (35)4,296 (82)937 (18)
 West1,221 (68)565 (32)1,813 (83)381 (17)
 Unknown4 (44)5 (56)6 (75)2 (25)
Comorbidities
 HTN3,459 (64)1,948 (36)5,924 (83)1,209 (17)
 HL3,675 (65)1,963 (35)6,087 (84)1,202 (16)
 CKD180 (64)103 (36)475 (87)68 (13)
 COPD161 (66)82 (34)257 (86)42 (14)
 HF158 (60)107 (40)303 (82)65 (18)
 IHD/CAD467 (62)291 (38)936 (85)162 (15)
Average generic drug copay, $9.6610.239.379.85
Average branded drug copay, $49.7349.9548.6849.11
No. of office visits within 6 months after index date2.912.042.842.17
Average index date HbA1c level, %10.429.989.619.56
DxCG risk score§2.232.002.472.18
Adherence quartile
 FirstNANA2,349 (87)360 (13)
 SecondNANA2,337 (85)403 (15)
 ThirdNANA2,254 (81)520 (19)
 FourthNANA2,032 (75)686 (25)
Top quartile of dosing for initial antidiabetic drugNANA7,082 (81)1,704 (19)
Initial antidiabetic drug
 First generationNANA7,178 (80)1,760 (20)
 Second generationNANA1,794 (90)209 (10)
  • Data are n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • CAD, coronary artery disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; HF, heart failure; HL, hyperlipidemia; HTN, hypertension; IHD, ischemic heart disease; NA, not applicable; SES, socioeconomic status.

  • *Race and SES are calculated using the beneficiary’s zip code and census averages for the beneficiary’s zip code.

  • †Average copay for drugs in each member’s health plan.

  • ‡Number of office visits within 6 months after index date of elevated HbA1c level.

  • §DxCG risk score is an overall measure of medical complexity.

  • ‖Initial drug is the first diabetes drug a patient is prescribed—the one noninsulin diabetes drug they are already taking on the index date. First-generation antidiabetic drugs include metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and meglitinides. Second-generation antidiabetic drugs include amylin analogs, GLP-1 agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT2 inhibitors.