Table 4

Characteristics associated with intensification within 6 months after HbA1c ≥8% (64 mmol/mol)

CharacteristicOR95% CIP value
Age1.011.00, 1.020.01
Sex (male vs. female)1.100.99, 1.230.09
Race/ethnicity
 White1.000.99, 1.000.41
 Black1.000.99, 1.000.49
 Hispanic1.001.00, 1.010.20
Socioeconomics
 Percent below poverty0.990.98, 1.000.05
 Percent college educated1.000.99, 1.000.26
 Population density (urban vs. rural)1.100.88, 1.380.39
Geography
 Northeast vs. West1.020.80, 1.300.90
 Midwest vs. West0.800.67, 0.960.02
 South vs. West0.930.77, 1.110.41
Comorbidities
 Hypertension1.000.88, 1.130.94
 Hyperlipidemia1.181.04, 1.340.01
 Chronic kidney disease1.220.90, 1.640.20
 COPD1.170.80, 1.710.41
 Heart failure0.780.57, 1.090.14
 IHD/CAD1.050.85, 1.290.65
 Overall risk score*0.990.98, 1.010.26
Index HbA1c level1.101.06, 1.14<0.01
Average generic drug copay0.970.95, 0.98<0.01
Average branded drug copay1.001.00, 1.010.05
Office visits1.101.08, 1.13<0.01
PDC quartile (fourth vs. first)§0.450.38, 0.53<0.01
PDC quartile (third vs. first)0.670.57, 0.79<0.01
PDC quartile (second vs. first)0.870.74, 1.030.10
Existing therapy (second vs. first generation)1.911.62, 2.26<0.01
Top quartile of dosing for existing therapy0.580.49, 0.67<0.01
  • Adjusted R2: 7.35%.

  • CAD, coronary artery disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IHD, ischemic heart disease; PDC, percent days covered.

  • *DxCG risk score (generated using proprietary DxCG algorithm of risk factors and comorbidities).

  • †Average copay for drugs in each member’s health insurance plan.

  • ‡Number of office visits within 6 months after index date of elevated HbA1c level.

  • §PDC is a measure of adherence. The first quartile is the highest (best) adherence group, and the fourth quartile is the lowest (worst) adherence group.

  • ‖Existing therapy is the first diabetes drug a patient is prescribed—the one noninsulin antidiabetic drug they are already taking on the index date. First-generation diabetes drugs include metformin, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, α-glucosidase inhibitors, and meglitinides. Second-generation diabetes drugs include amylin analogs, GLP-1 agonists, DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT2 inhibitors. Combination drugs include therapies with two active antidiabetic drugs and are considered second-generation drugs if either of the two active antidiabetic drugs is a second-generation drug.