Table 3

Characteristics associated with initiation within 6 months after HbA1c ≥8% (64 mmol/mol)

CharacteristicOR95% CIP value
Age 0.990.99, 1.00<0.01
Sex (male vs. female)1.060.96, 1.160.28
Race/ethnicity
 White1.001.00, 1.010.68
 Black1.000.99, 1.000.47
 Hispanic1.000.99, 1.000.21
Socioeconomics
 Percent below poverty1.000.99, 1.000.19
 Percent college educated1.001.00, 1.000.72
 Population density (urban vs. rural)0.970.79, 1.190.76
Geography
 Northeast vs. West0.530.45, 0.62<0.01
 Midwest vs. West0.690.56, 0.86<0.01
 South vs. West0.770.65, 0.90<0.01
Comorbidities
 Hypertension1.010.91, 1.120.85
 Hyperlipidemia1.211.09, 1.34<0.01
 Chronic kidney disease0.890.66, 1.210.46
 COPD0.960.69, 1.310.78
 Heart failure0.790.57, 1.080.14
 IHD/CAD0.920.76, 1.120.41
 Overall risk score*0.990.98, 1.010.39
Index HbA1c level1.151.12, 1.18<0.01
Average generic drug copay0.960.95, 0.98<0.01
Average branded drug copay1.001.00, 1.000.07
Office visits1.151.12, 1.17<0.01
  • Adjusted R2: 7.96%.

  • CAD, coronary artery disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; IHD, ischemic heart disease.

  • *DxCG risk score (generated using proprietary DxCG algorithm of risk factors and comorbidities).

  • †Average copay for drugs in each member’s health insurance plan.

  • ‡Number of office visits within 6 months after index date of elevated HbA1c test.