Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study cohort overall and stratified by stable or fast progression of eGFR decline

Baseline value
MissingOverallStableFast
Patients (n)481258223
Age (years)064 ± 9.364 ± 1065 ± 9
Female sex0232 (47)117 (45)115 (50)
Smoking status (never)0250 (51)134 (52)116 (50)
Duration of diabetes (years)010.8 ± 8.810 ± 812 ± 9
BMI (kg/m2)031 ± 5.531 ± 532 ± 6
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic 0138 ± 17.4138 ± 16139 ± 19
 Diastolic 079 ± 10.379 ± 1079 ± 10
HbA1c (%)4 (<1)6.8 (6.3, 7.6) 6.8 (6.3, 7.7) 6.8 (6.2, 7.6)
HbA1c (mmol/mol)51 (45, 60)51 (45, 61)51 (44, 60)
Hemoglobin (mmol/L)9 (1)8.6 (8.1, 9.3)8.8 (8.2, 9.3)8.5 (7.9, 9.1)
Serum glucose (mmol/L)1 (<1)7.4 (6.2, 9)7.5 (6.3, 9)7.4 (6, 8.9)
Serum cholesterol (mmol/L)1 (<1)4.6 (4, 5.5)4.6 (4, 5.4)4.6 (4, 5.6)
Serum creatinine (µmol/L)077 (66, 95)77 (67, 95)77 (65, 95)
UACR (mg/g)14 (3)8.8 (4.7, 26.5)8.2 (4.6, 21)9.2 (5, 36.5)
Glucose-lowering agents*0
 None59 (12)35 (14)24 (11)
 1–2 agents355 (74)192 (74)163 (73)
 >2 agents67 (14)31 (12)36 (16)
Blood pressure–lowering agents0
 None77 (16)52 (20)25 (11)
 1–2 agents195 (41)106 (41)89 (40)
 >2 agents209 (43)100 (39)109 (49)
ESA therapy011 (2)4 (2)7 (3)
eGFR CKD-EPI (mL/min/1.73 m2)084 (64, 94)85 (65, 96)82 (63, 94)
 Decline per year (mL/min/1.73 m2/year)0−0.71 (−6.3, 0.2)0.14 (−0.44, 0.68)−6.75 (−9.04, −5.48)
  • Data are reported as mean ± SD, median (first quartile, third quartile), and absolute frequency (relative frequency) where appropriate. Supplementary Table 3 gives more details on medication of the study patients. None of the differences between the two groups are significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons by Holm’s method (except for eGFR decline, which is the outcome of the study). We compared medians of continuous variables with Mann-Whitney U tests and proportions of categorical variables with χ2 tests.

  • ESA, erythropoietin-stimulating agents; UACR, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

  • *Agent classes: biguanides, insulin, sulfonylureas, dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors/glucagon-like peptide 1 agonists, glinides, glitazones, α-glucosidase inhibitors, sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.

  • †Agent classes: ACE inhibitors/angiotensin 2 receptor blockers, β-blockers, calcium antagonists (including direct vasodilators), α-blockers, diuretics (thiazide diuretics/loop diuretics).

  • ‡Includes darbepoetin-α, epoetin-α, epoetin-β, epoetin-θ, epoetin-ζ, and others.