Table 1

Characteristics of participants by DPN status at 13-year follow-up with characteristics of participants shown by data from baseline, 6-year, and 13-year follow-up, ADDITION-Denmark

Characteristics13-year follow-up6-year follow-upDiabetes diagnosis
No DPNDPNNo DPNDPNNo DPNDPN
Number of participants330 (73.0)122 (27.0)
Male sex194 (58.8)87 (71.3)*
Age (years)70.1 (65.0; 74.5)73.8 (68.5; 77.0)*
Diabetes duration (years)12.7 (11.3; 13.4)12.9 (12.2; 13.7)*
Height (cm)169.4 (163.0; 175.8)172.0 (167.0; 177.5)*
HbA1c (%)6.5 (6.2; 7.0)6.8 (6.4; 7.5)*6.3 (6.0; 6.7)6.6 (6.0; 7.2)*6.3 (6.0; 6.8)6.5 (6.1; 7.4)*
HbA1c (mmol/mol)48.0 (43.9; 53.0)51.0 (46.0; 58.0)*45.4 (42.1; 49.7)48.6 (42.1; 55.2)*45.4 (42.1; 50.8)47.5 (43.2; 57.4)
Weight (kg)84.7 (74.1; 94.2)91.0 (82.3; 106.8)*86.0 (75.6; 96.6)91.6 (84.2; 106.2)*86.6 (77.2; 97.1)93.3 (85.5; 105.8)*
Waist circumference (cm)103.0 (95.5; 111.0)110.5 (101.6; 118.0)*101.5 (94.3; 109.6)106.2 (99.6; 116.4)*102.0 (95.5; 109.5)107.3 (100.7; 114.8)*
BMI (kg/m2)29.1 (26.2; 32.2)31.1 (28.1; 35.2)*29.1 (26.5; 32.8)31.2 (28.2; 34.8)*29.0 (27.0; 33.0)31.0 (28.0; 35.0)*
SBP (mmHg)137.0 (127.0; 149.0)138.0 (130.0; 149.0)132.7 (122.0; 144.3)135.2 (124.3; 145.7)145.3 (133.0; 158.0)146.7 (134.3; 158.3)
DBP (mmHg)82.0 (77.0; 88.0)82.0 (74.0; 89.0)83.0 (77.3; 92.0)83.8 (77.3; 90.7)88.3 (80.7; 95.7)86.5 (80.7; 93.5)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.3 (3.7; 5.0)4.0 (3.5; 4.7)*4.4 (3.8; 4.9)3.9 (3.5; 4.7)*5.5 (4.9; 6.3)5.6 (4.9; 6.3)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L)1.4 (1.1; 1.6)1.3 (1.1; 1.6)1.3 (1.1; 1.6)1.3 (1.1; 1.6)1.4 (1.2; 1.6)1.3 (1.1; 1.6)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L)2.1 (1.7; 2.6)1.9 (1.5; 2.4)*2.1 (1.7; 2.7)1.9 (1.4; 2.4)*3.3 (2.7; 4.0)3.4 (2.8; 4.0)
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.5 (1.1; 2.1)1.5 (1.1; 2.2)1.4 (1.1; 2.0)1.3 (1.0; 2.0)1.6 (1.1; 2.2)1.6 (1.1; 2.3)
Any albuminuria76 (23.5)50 (41.7)*61 (18.8)39 (32.2)*41 (13.9)22 (20.2)
Alcohol (units/week)3.0 (0.0; 9.0)3.0 (0.0; 12.0)5.0 (1.0; 12.0)5.0 (1.0; 14.0)5.0 (2.0; 12.0)7.0 (1.0; 14.0)
Current smoking46 (15.5)10 (8.8)*69 (21.4)18 (15.8)*81 (24.7)33 (27.0)
Former smoking129 (43.3)70 (61.4)*119 (37.0)62 (54.4)*109 (33.2)52 (42.6)
Treatment with insulin31 (11.4)28 (26.9)*21 (6.8)13 (10.9)
Treatment with metformin170 (62.5)74 (71.2)136 (43.7)61 (51.3)
Treatment with statins220 (80.9)78 (75.0)242 (77.8)91 (76.5)48 (15.0)14 (11.6)
Treatment with aspirin130 (47.8)67 (64.4)*201 (64.6)88 (73.9)37 (11.5)17 (14.0)
Treatment with antihypertensives231 (84.9)94 (90.4)247 (79.4)98 (82.4)127 (39.6)48 (39.7)
  • Categorical data are frequencies (percentage of participants with data on the particular characteristic), and continuous data are medians (p25; p75).

  • DPN, a diagnosis of clinically confirmed DPN at 13-year follow-up; No DPN, no DPN clinically confirmed at 13-year follow-up.

  • *P < 0.05.

  • †Albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥3.5 mg/mmol for women and albumin-to-creatinine ratio ≥2.5 for men.