Table 1

Maternal characteristics for women included in the LiP study according to GDM in the first trimester by WHO 2013 GDM criteria

First-trimester GDM*AllInterventionControlP
n = 90n = 36n = 54
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years)29 (27–33)29 (27–34)30 (27–32)0.90
 BMI (kg/m2)34.5 (32.3–38.1)34.3 (32.3–39.2)34.6 (32.7–37.3)0.29
 Caucasian ethnicity (%)100100100NA
 Primiparity48 (53.0)21 (58.3)27 (50.0)0.44
 GWG (kg)7.3 (4.7–10.7) (n = 88)6.4 (4.3–9.3) (n = 35)8.1 (4.9–11.4) (n = 53)0.20
 Excessive GWG (>9 kg)34 (38.6) (n = 88)9 (25.7) (n = 35)25 (47.2) (n = 53)0.04
 School ≥12 years62 (68.9)27 (75.0)35 (64.8)0.31
 Further education ≥3 years37 (41.1)16 (44.4)21 (38.9)0.60
 Gainfully employed63 (70.0)25 (69.4)38 (70.4)0.93
 Smoking in pregnancy by inclusion10 (11.1)5 (13.9)5 (9.3)0.49
 Diagnosed based on FVPG87 (96.7)35 (97.2)52 (96.3)0.81
 Diagnosed based on 2-h value8 (8.9)2 (5.6)6 (11.1)0.38
 Diagnosed based on both FVPG and 2-h value6 (67)1 (2.9)5 (9.6)0.24
  • Data are presented as median (interquartile range) or n (%), with or without n data in parentheses, unless otherwise indicated.

  • NA, not applicable.

  • *WHO 2013 GDM criteria (FVPG ≥5.1 mmol/L and/or 2-h CBG ≥8.5 mmol/L) in first trimester.

  • †Weight at 34–36 weeks minus weight at 10–12 weeks.