Table 1

Patient characteristics at enrollment (N = 103)

Age (years)
 Mean ± SD24 ± 17
 Range6–72
Female sex, n (%)58 (56)
Race/ethnicity, n (%)
 White non-Hispanic82 (80)
 Black non-Hispanic2 (2)
 Hispanic or Latino7 (7)
 Asian3 (3)
 Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander1 (<1)
 More than one race8 (8)
Diabetes duration (years)
 Median (IQR)8 (3–16)
 Range1–52
BMI, mean ± SD*
 Participants ≥18 years old (kg/m2)25 ± 4
 Participants <18 years old (percentile)70 ± 23
HbA1c (%), mean ± SD 7.3 ± 0.9
HbA1c (mmol/mol), mean ± SD 56 ± 9.8
CGM metrics
 %Time <70 mg/dL
  Median (IQR)3.6 (1.9–5.6)
  Mean ± SD4.4 ± 3.5
 %Time in range 70–180 mg/dL, mean ± SD64 ± 15
 Glucose (mg/dL), mean ± SD158 ± 27
 %Time >250 mg/dL, median (IQR)7 (3–15)
Current insulin modality, n (%)
 Injections17 (17)
 Pump86 (83)
CGM use status, n (%)
 Current87 (84)
 In past, but not current14 (14)
 Never2 (2)
1 or more events in the last 12 months, n (%)
 Severe hypoglycemia4 (4)
 Diabetic ketoacidosis§1 (<1)
N of glucose tests/day from self-report, mean ± SD4.1 ± 2.4
Other noninsulin blood glucose control medications taken, n (%)
 Prescription drug3 (3)
  • *43 participants were 18 or older.

  • †Missing for one participant due to unusable baseline CGM data.

  • ‡A severe hypoglycemia event is defined as a hypoglycemia event in which the participant required assistance from another person to actively administer carbohydrate, glucagon, or engage in other resuscitative actions.

  • §Diabetic ketoacidosis is defined as having all of the following: 1) symptoms such as polyuria, polydipsia, nausea, or vomiting; 2) serum ketones >1.5 mmol/L or large/moderate urine ketones; 3) arterial blood pH <7.30 or venous pH <7.24 or serum bicarbonate <15 mmol/L; and 4) treatment provided in a health care facility.

  • ‖Includes empagliflozin, metformin, Invokana, and Victoza.