Table 2

Dietary recall and activity prior to visit, biomarker AUC, visit activity, and energy intake comparison by condition

VariableSITSIT + WALKP
Total 24-h diet recall
 Total energy intake (kcal/day)1,951.3 (651.6)2,047.5 (570.0)0.413
 Carbohydrate intake (%)152.7 (9.3)51.9 (7.9)0.697
 Fat intake (%)133.1 (8.5)32.5 (7.5)0.766
 Protein intake (%)114.1 (4.2)15.6 (4.5)0.051
Wrist accelerometry (week prior to testing)
 Number of valid days of data6.9 (2.2)6.6 (2.4)0.982
 Wear time (h/day)22.1 (2.0)22.2 (1.6)0.988
 Daily activity (3-D counts/day × 10−6)3.2 (0.61)3.20 (0.59)0.606
 Total sleep time (h/night)7.5 (0.7)7.6 (0.7)0.146
 Sleep efficiency (%)86.7 (4.0)86.5 (4.7)0.850
Metabolic outcomes from OGTT
 Insulin AUC (mIU/dL ∙ min)2,321,145.9 (18,280.7)16,629.9 (17,563.0)<0.001
 C-peptide AUC (ng/dL ∙ min)2,314,778.5 (900.9)1,205.7 (527.8)0.001
 Glucose AUC (mg/dL ∙ min)2,321,587.7 (2,215.5)21,106.5 (2,630.4)0.143
 FFA AUC (mEq/L ∙ min)2,334.6 (11.0)31.1 (11.4)0.074
 Cortisol AUC (µg/dL ∙ min)2,31,165.0 (229.2)1,175.6 (292.0)0.973
 Triglycerides AUC (mg/dL ∙ min)2,3,416,033.6 (10,580.3)15,969.0 (8,857.3)0.442
 Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity33.64 (2.18)4.26 (2.51)0.013
 GE index34.04 (1.0)3.99 (1.02)0.124
Catecholamines during OGTT (pg/dL)5
 Norepinephrine baseline3255.0 (65.9)243.7 (75.9)0.527
 Norepinephrine at 30 min3268.6 (62.1)401.4 (128.4)<0.001
 Epinephrine baseline332.9 (17.3)34.6 (16.4)0.591
 Epinephrine at 30 min326.0 (10.1)33.7 (25.3)0.283
 Dopamine baseline25.9 (3.9)25.2 (0.64)0.384
 Dopamine at 30 min25.8 (2.6)25.6 (2.9)0.779
Buffet energy intake after OGTT
 Total energy intake (kcal)1,261.9 (480.4)1,259.6 (474.9)0.890
 Carbohydrate intake (%)149.7 (9.4)49.2 (8.4)0.383
 Fat intake (%)138.2 (7.7)38.7 (6.7)0.379
 Protein intake (%)112.1 (2.9)12.2 (2.9)0.558
  • Data are mean (SD). P value determined with repeated-measures ANOVA controlling for randomization order, age, sex, fat mass, and puberty stage. n = 32–35 unless noted. Boldface type indicates significant P values.

  • 1Arcsine (square root) transformed for analysis.

  • 2AUC by trapezoidal rule.

  • 3Log transformed for analysis.

  • 4Additionally controlled for race.

  • 5n = 24.