Table 4

Review of studies investigating the relationship between diabetes or DR and AMD

Study nameType of studyEnrollees, nAge, yearsMajor findings
LongitudinalAREDS (5)Prospective cohort study3,29455–80Increased incidence of diabetes in patients at risk for development of advanced AMD in each eye (OR 1.88)
BES (7)2,79340–84Trend toward increased 9-year incidence of late AMD in patients with diabetes vs. control subjects (age-adjusted relative risk 2.7; P = 0.054)
Voutilainen-Kaunisto et al. (25)27745–64No association between 10-year incidence of AMD and diabetes
Hahn et al. (12)Retrospective cohort study16,174>69Increased 10-year incidence of dry AMD in NPDR vs. control subjects (HR 1.24); increased 10-year incidence of wet AMD in NPDR vs. control (HR 1.68) and PDR vs. control subjects (HR 2.15); diabetes without retinopathy did not affect risk of dry or wet AMD; there was no difference in risk of wet AMD in PDR compared with NPDR
He et al. (current study)109,232≥50A tendency toward a greater risk of dry AMD (HR 1.23; P = 0.108) and wet AMD (HR 1.37; P = 0.023) in patients with diabetes vs. those without diabetes, but the difference did not reach significance at a significance level of 1%; dry AMD (HR 3.89) and wet AMD (HR 3.42) were significantly correlated to patients with diabetes with DR, compared with those with diabetes without DR at a significance level of 1%
Cross-sectionalBDES (6)Cross-sectional population based4,69543–86Increased prevalence of wet AMD in male patients with diabetes >75 years of age (OR 10.2) compared with control subjects
EUREYE Study (8)4,522>65Increased prevalence of diabetes in exudative AMD vs. control subjects (OR 1.81)
BMES (18)3,22849–97No significant association between patients with or without diabetes for exudative AMD (OR 1.2) and early AMD (OR 1.0)
Framingham Eye Study (26)2,47752–85No association between patients with diabetes and those with AMD
Choi et al. (13)3,00850–87Patients with diabetes were more likely to have early AMD (OR 1.87) than those without diabetes
Klein et al. (14)Observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial4,288≥63No significant association between patients with and without diabetes for early AMD (OR 0.87); significant association between patients with and without diabetes for late AMD (OR 2.43) and exudative AMD (OR 2.49)
Case-controlBorrone et al. (20)Retrospective descriptive observational case control399>65Lower prevalence of late AMD in patients with diabetes vs. control subjects in persons >75 years of age
Maltzman et al. (22)Case-control studies6052–88No association between patients with diabetes and those with AMD
Hyman et al. (23)465
Blumenkranz et al. (24)49
Cackett et al. (40)1,790>60Diabetes was not significantly associated with wet AMD (OR 0.9)
  • B, black; H, Hispanic; M, Mexican.