Table 3

Obstetric and neonatal outcomes in women included in the LiP study according to GDM in first trimester by WHO 2013 criteria

First-trimester GDM*AllInterventionControlP
n = 90n = 36n = 54
Obstetric outcomes
 PIH13 (14.4)4 (11.1)9 (16.7)0.46
 PE5 (5.6)2 (5.6)3 (5.6)0.92
 PIH + PE18 (20.0)6 (16.7)12 (22.2)0.52
 Cesarean section planned11 (1,229)8 (22.2)3 (5.6)0.02
 Cesarean section emergency13 (14.4)4 (11.1)9 (16.7)0.46
 Cesarean section total24 (26.7)12 (33.3)12 (22.2)0.24
 GA (days)283 (273–289)280 (273–289)285 (273–289)0.53
 Shoulder dystocia1 (1.0)01 (1.9)0.41
Neonatal outcomes
 Male fetus49 (54.4)22 (61.1)27 (50.0)0.11
 Preterm birth (<GA 37 weeks)4 (4.4)2 (5.6)2 (3.7)0.68
 Birth weight (g)3,657 (3,366–4,172)3,865 (3,508–4,136)3,575 (3,300–4,178)0.72
 Birth weight z score0.28 (−0.48 to 0.98)0.34 (−0.22 to 1.10)0.24 (−0.56 to 0.97)0.66
 Birth weight ≥4,000 g29 (32.2)13 (36.1)16 (29.6)0.52
 Birth weight ≥4,500 g3 (3.3)03 (5.6)0.15
 LGA15 (16.7)7 (19.4)8 (14.8)0.56
 Abdominal circumference (cm)34 (32–35)34 (34–36)34 (32–35)0.88
 Cord blood C-peptide (pmol/L)496 (326–613) (n = 30)592 (464–820) (n = 12)433 (324–545) (n = 19)0.17
 Cord blood C-peptide ≥90 centile10 (33.3)7 (63.6)3 (15.79)<0.01
 NICU admission15 (16.7)5 (13.9)10 (18.5)0.56
  • Data are presented as median (interquartile range), with or without n data in parentheses, or n (%) unless otherwise indicated. Differences are tested with χ2 test, Student t test, or Mann-Whitney U test where appropriate. LGA, large for gestational age; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; PE, preeclampsia; PIH, pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  • *WHO 2013 GDM criteria (FVPG ≥5.1 mmol/L and/or 2-h CBG ≥8.5 mmol/L) in first trimester.