Table 3

Results from six separate mixed models predicting change in substrate/hormone concentrations over time by visit type: sitting interrupted with 3 min of moderate-intensity walking every half hour (SIT + WALK) or uninterrupted sitting (SIT)

VariableInsulin1C-peptide1Glucose1
EstimateSEF2PEstimateSEF2PEstimateSEF2P
Intercept1.5330.2516.12<0.0010.5390.1214.46<0.0011.81910.07225.42<0.001
Age (years)−0.0520.0283.510.062−0.0170.01331.670.198−0.0130.0055.510.020
Sex (reference = male)−0.0750.0701.150.284−0.0550.0332.790.096−0.0200.0122.510.113
Tanner stage 2 (reference = 1)0.1280.0771.660.0970.0570.0371.570.1170.0200.0141.480.140
Tanner stage 3 (reference = 1)0.2540.1022.490.0130.0660.0481.360.1750.0230.0191.230.221
Tanner stage 4 (reference = 1)0.2400.15571.540.1240.0710.0740.950.3410.0170.0250.670.504
Total fat mass (kg)0.0190.00425.16<0.00010.0100.00228.73<0.00010.0010.0012.610.107
Fasting concentration30.0040.00117.96<0.0010.0520.00929.63<0.00010.0030.00114.59<0.001
Randomization order (reference = SIT)0.0340.0590.340.5620.0070.0280.0600.8030.0270.0106.600.011
Time135.080.001186.32<0.000180.86<0.0001
Visit type (reference = SIT)−0.1460.05318.60<0.001−0.0660.02816.79<0.0001−0.0240.0142.1000.148
Time × visit type2.800.0072.260.0290.7500.632
 0 min−0.0660.053−1.240.215−0.0160.029−0.550.58300.0020.0140.160.873
 20 min−0.0130.055−0.240.812−0.0240.030−0.780.438−0.0030.015−0.220.823
 30 min0.0680.0531.270.2050.0680.0282.390.0170.0220.0141.550.121
 60 min0.1460.0542.690.0070.0610.0292.090.0370.0080.0140.580.560
 90 min0.1610.0543.000.0030.0850.0292.950.0030.0060.0140.430.665
 120 min0.0440.0530.830.4080.0150.0290.530.595−0.0130.014−0.910.365
 150 min0.1770.0533.36<0.0010.0830.0292.890.0040.0130.0140.890.373
 180 min0.1460.0532.720.0070.0660.0282.320.0210.0240.0141.660.097
FFAs1Triglycerides1Cortisol1
EstimateSEF2PEstimateSEF2PEstimateSEF2P
Intercept−1.350.165−8.20<0.0011.4850.14010.65<0.0010.8420.1306.47<0.001
Age (years)−0.0120.0170.520.4700.0080.0150.300.5860−0.0260.0143.800.052
Sex (reference = male)0.0330.0410.650.421−0.0350.0430.660.41640.0110.0320.120.730
Tanner stage 2 (reference = 1)−0.0190.044−0.440.663−0.0350.049−0.720.474−0.0220.036−0.620.536
Tanner stage 3 (reference = 1)0.0020.0600.030.987−0.0670.063−1.070.2870.0270.0480.570.567
Tanner stage 4 (reference = 1)0.0640.0820.780.4350.0350.0880.400.6890.0150.0650.240.813
Total fat mass (kg)<0.0010.0030.120.7340.0020.0020.840.3587<0.0010.0020.020.901
Fasting concentration30.3970.05551.63<0.0010.002<0.001266.79<0.00010.0100.00313.72<0.001
Randomization order (reference = SIT)0.0230.0340.470.4920.0400.0371.160.28100.0140.0270.280.597
Time366.71<0.00118.70<0.000131.55<0.001
Visit type (reference = SIT)0.0850.0400.070.78920.0270.020114.940.00010.0130.0360.630.429
Time × visit type1.300.2460.940.4750.540.803
 0 min0.0010.0400.240.8140.0060.0200.310.7590.0420.0361.190.236
 20 min−0.0070.042−0.160.875−0.0030.021−0.160.872−0.0240.037−0.640.525
 30 min0.0650.0401.620.106−0.0530.020−2.590.010−0.0080.036−0.220.825
 60 min0.0480.0401.200.230−0.0370.020−1.840.066−0.0490.036−1.390.165
 90 min0.0250.0400.610.539−0.0360.020−1.790.075−0.0200.036−0.550.581
 120 min−0.0090.040−0.230.821−0.0400.020−1.990.047−0.0140.036−0.400.693
 150 min−0.0150.040−0.380.705−0.0350.020−1.750.0810.0040.0360.110.912
 180 min−0.0850.040−2.110.035−0.0270.020−1.340.180−0.0120.036−0.350.724
  • Boldface type indicates significant P values.

  • 1Log-transformed AUC.

  • 2The t value for intercept and time × visit type interactions (random effects).

  • 3Fasting concentration for each respective hormone.