Table 2

Maternal metabolic measures in women included in the LiP study according to GDM in first trimester by WHO 2013 criteria

First-trimester GDM*AllInterventionControlP
n = 90n = 36n = 54
FVPG (mmol/L)
 GA 12–15 weeks5.20 (5.10–5.40) (n = 90)5.30 (5.10–5.45) (n = 36)5.20 (5.20–5.40) (n = 54)0.32
 GA 28–30 weeks5.10 (4.80–5.50) (n = 87)5.30 (4.80–5.50) (n = 35)5.10 (4.80–5.50) (n = 52)0.85
2-h CBG (mmol/L)
 GA 12–15 weeks6.45 (5.90–7.50) (n = 86)6.25 (5.80–7.20) (n = 34)6.70 (5.90–7.55) (n = 52)0.09
 GA 28–30 weeks6.55 (5.85–7.35) (n = 84)6.70 (5.80–7.60) (n = 35)6.50 (5.90–7.20) (n = 49)0.53
Fasting insulin (mU/L)
 GA 12–15 weeks11.50 (8.83–16.50) (n = 89)14.08 (9.75–19.17) (n = 36)11.17 (8.83–15.67) (n = 53)0.22
 GA 28–30 weeks14.83 (11.33–20.67) (n = 87)14.83 (10.83–22.33) (n = 35)15.33 (11.75–20.33) (n = 52)0.59
HOMA-IR
 GA 12–15 weeks2.68 (2.08–3.99) (n = 89)3.25 (2.26–4.68) (n = 36)2.53 (2.04–3.81) (n = 53)0.18
 GA 28–30 weeks3.30 (2.59–4.80) (n = 87)3.16 (2.44–5.42) (n = 35)3.38 (2.66–4.74) (n = 52)0.71
 ΔHOMA-IR 12–28 weeks0.62 (−0.04 to 1.27) (n = 87)0.59 (−0.13 to 1.12) (n = 35)0.80 (−0.04 to 1.42) (n = 52)0.62
Fasting total cholesterol (mmol/L)
 GA 12–15 weeks5.1 (4.7–5.3) (n = 88)5.2 (4.5–5.6) (n = 35)4.9 (4.7–5.2) (n = 53)0.15
 GA 28–30 weeks6.10 (5.50–6.60) (n = 87)6.30 (5.70–6.80) (n = 35)5.95 (5.40–6.45) (n = 52)0.02
 ΔCholesterol 12–28 weeks1.00 (0.70–1.30) (n = 85)1.10 (0.80–1.40) (n = 34)1.00 (0.60–1.30) (n = 51)0.07
Fasting HDL (mmol/L)
 GA 12–15 weeks1.68 (1.41–1.96) (n = 88)1.84 (1.48–1.84) (n = 35)1.59 (1.39–1.84) (n = 53)0.06
 GA 28–30 weeks1.71 (1.43–2.02) (n = 86)1.85 (1.52–2.05) (n = 35)1.61 (1.41–1.94) (n = 51)0.10
 ΔHDL 12–28 weeks0.03 (−0.13 to 0.19) (n = 84)0.02 (−0.08 to 0.11) (n = 34)0.05 (−0.14 to 0.19) (n = 50)0.66
Fasting LDL (mmol/L)
 GA 12–15 weeks2.80 (2.50–3.10) (n = 88)3.00 (2.50–3.20) (n = 35)2.80 (2.40–3.00) (n = 53)0.21
 GA 28–30 weeks3.55 (2.90–3.90) (n = 86)3.70 (3.30–4.10) (n = 35)3.30 (2.70–3.80) (n = 51)0.02
 ΔLDL 12–28 weeks0.60 (0.30–0.90) (n = 84)0.75 (0.40–1.10) (n = 34)0.55 (0.20–0.90) (n = 50)0.03
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/L)
 GA 12–15 weeks1.39 (1.12–1.87) (n = 88)1.24 (0.93–1.74) (n = 35)1.44 (1.24–1.96) (n = 53)0.02
 GA 28–30 weeks2.16 (1.80–2.74) (n = 86)2.11 (1.62–2.52) (n = 35)2.31 (1.86–3.00) (n = 51)0.03
 ΔTriglycerides 12–28 weeks0.71 (0.49–1.21) (n = 84)0.72 (0.53–1.08) (n = 34)0.71 (0.44–1.44) (n = 50)0.33
  • Data are presented as median (interquartile range) with n data in parentheses. Differences were tested with Students t test or Mann-Whitney U test where appropriate.

  • *WHO 2013 GDM criteria (FVPG ≥5.1 mmol/L and/or 2-h CBG ≥8.5 mmol/L) in first trimester.