Table 1

Baseline characteristics of our BARICAN cohort (test cohort)

Patient T2D status at 5 years after RYGB
5y-DR5y-Relapse5y-NDR
n = 94n = 27n = 54PAdjusted P
Before surgery
 Male, n (%)19 (20.2)7 (25.9)13 (24.1)0.76*
 Age (years)46.5 ± 11.046.3 ± 8.652.4 ± 8.80.006<0.001
 Body weight (kg)132.4 ± 23.8127.5 ± 15.2123.5 ± 21.00.130.09
 BMI (kg/m2)48.7 ± 7.646.0 ± 6.445.7 ± 7.30.090.08
 Body composition
  Fat mass (%)49.2 ± 5.046.8 ± 5.546.9 ± 50.050.004
  Fat-free mass (%)48.7 ± 4.851.0 ± 5.450.8 ± 4.90.070.005
  Android/gynoid fat mass ratio2.1 ± 0.52.2 ± 0.52.4 ± 0.60.080.046
 Diabetes condition
  T2D duration (years)3.5 ± 4.15.1 ± 4.012.4 ± 6.8<0.001<0.001
  Number of antidiabetic drugs1.1 ± 1.11.8 ± 0.82.6 ± 1.0<0.001<0.001
  Patients under
   Metformin only, n (%)29 (30.9)6 (22.2)3 (5.6)0.01*
   Glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs, n (%)3 (3.2)4 (14.8)13 (24.1)0.002*
   Sulfamides, n (%)0 (0)1 (3.7)10 (18.5)<0.001*
   Glitazones, n (%)7 (7.4)0 (0)3 (5.6)0.37*
  Patients requiring insulin, n (%)6 (6.4)4 (14.8)35 (64.8)<0.001*
  Fasting glycemia (mmol/L)7.4 ± 2.17.8 ± 2.88.8 ± 3.20.030.03
  HbA1c (%) 7.0 ± 1.1 7.2 ± 1.3 8.6 ± 1.9 <0.001<0.001
  HbA1c (mmol/mol)53 ± 1255 ± 1470 ± 21<0.001<0.001
  Patients with HbA1c <7%, n (%)55 (58.5)16 (59.3)6 (11.1)<0.001*
 Diabetes remission scores
  DiaRem (20)4.9 ± 3.57.1 ± 6.214.1 ± 5<0.001<0.001
  Ad-DiaRem (21)6.5 ± 3.68.0 ± 4.715.1 ± 3.5<0.001<0.001
  DiaBetter (41)2.8 ± 2.13.3 ± 2.66.6 ± 2.4<0.001<0.001
 Comorbidities
  Patients with hypertension, n (%)63 (67.7)16 (59.3)45 (84.9)0.03*
  Number of antihypertension drugs1.1 ± 1.10.9 ± 1.11.5 ± 1.00.090.04
  Patients with dyslipidemia, n (%)78 (83.0)23 (88.5)48 (88.9)0.56*
  Number of antidyslipidemia drugs0.4 ± 0.50.5 ± 0.50.7 ± 0.40.0001<0.001
  Patients with sleep apnea, n (%)64 (68.1)18 (66.7)42 (77.8)0.43*
Body composition changes 1 year post-RYGB
 Percentage loss of body weight−29.3 ± 7.0−22.7 ± 8.0−24.9 ± 7.0<0.001<0.001
 Percentage loss of kg fat mass−42.0 ± 11.5−33.3 ± 11.6−36.8 ± 11.50.010.01
 Percentage loss of kg fat-free mass−15.0 ± 5.4−12.1 ± 7.2−13.0 ± 5.80.10.09
 Percentage gain of initial fat-free mass18.8 ± 9.112.9 ± 7.114.8 ± 7.70.010.01
 Percentage loss of % limbs fat mass−12.5 ± 13.3−5.1 ± 11.8−11.5 ± 10.80.10.1
 Percentage gain of % limbs fat-free mass23.4 ± 13.117.5 ± 9.416.1 ± 11.00.010.01
 Percentage loss of % trunk fat mass−47.6 ± 13.1−40.4 ± 13.8−41.3 ± 13.20.040.04
  • The three trajectories (5y-NDR, 5y-Relapse, and 5y-DR) after RYGB were compared at baseline according to participants’ 5y-DR outcomes. Variables are presented as mean ± SD unless otherwise specified, and P values are shown before and after adjustment for age and sex. The predictive scores were computed as specified in the original publications (20,21,38). Body composition changes during the 1st year were calculated as follows: [(1-year value) − (baseline value)]/(baseline value) × 100.

  • 2 test P value results for categorical variables.

  • †The number of antidiabetic medications was included in the regression model.