Table 1

Characteristics for 3,307 CARDIA participants by quartile of coefficient of variability in FG from 1985–1986 to 2010–2011

CV in FG (%)
Quartile 1Quartile 2Quartile 3Quartile 4P value*
Range, CV %0.5, 5.25.2, 6.97.0, 9.39.4, 22.8
N826827827827
Age at Y25, years50.2 (3.7)50.2 (3.6)50.1 (3.5)50.0 (3.7)0.75
Women, n (%)460 (56)489 (59)467 (56)456 (55)0.37
Black, n (%)338 (41)324 (39)378 (46)480 (58)<0.0001
Education at Y25, >4 years college, n (%)225 (27)224 (27)225 (27)162 (20)<0.0001
Current smoker at Y0, n (%)181 (22)195 (24)212 (26)275 (33)<0.0001
Current smoker at Y25, n (%)129 (16)127 (15)142 (17)185 (22)<0.001
No daily alcohol at Y0, n (%)320 (39)335 (41)290 (35)322 (39)0.09
No daily alcohol at Y25, n (%)374 (45)364 (44)354 (43)397 (48)0.03
BMI at Y0, kg/m224.6 (5.0)24.1 (4.7)24.3 (4.3)24.6 (5.2)0.08
BMI at Y25, kg/m229.3 (6.9)29.4 (7.3)30.3 (6.9)31.3 (7.6)<0.0001
Systolic BP at Y0, mmHg110 (11)110 (11)109 (10)110 (11)0.45
Systolic BP at Y25, mmHg117 (15)117 (15)119 (15)121 (16)<0.0001
BP medication use at Y0, n (%)22 (3)12 (1)18 (2)15 (2)0.34
BP medication use at Y25, n (%)184 (22)182 (22)211 (26)290 (35)<0.0001
Physical activity at Y0, exercise units418 (285)419 (288)427 (311)417 (302)0.89
Physical activity at Y25, exercise units354 (265)350 (278)334 (264)319 (289)0.04
LDL-C at Y0, mmol/L2.84 (0.78)2.82 (0.80)2.82 (0.83)2.84 (0.88)0.94
LDL-C at Y25, mmol/L2.92 (0.83)2.92 (0.85)2.87 (0.80)2.84 (0.88)0.28
Cholesterol medication use at Y25, n (%)107 (13)101 (12)131 (16)153 (19)<0.01
FG at Y0, mmol/L4.78 (0.39)4.61 (0.39)4.45 (0.39)4.34 (0.50)<0.0001
FG at Y25, mmol/L5.28 (1.33)5.28 (1.11)5.45 (1.22)5.95 (1.89)<0.0001
FG at variability censoring examination, mmol/L5.06 (0.44)5.06 (0.44)5.23 (0.50)5.50 (0.67)<0.0001
Change in FG, mmol/L0.28 (0.33)0.50 (0.39)0.78 (0.44)1.17 (0.72)<0.0001
Weighted average FG, mmol/L4.95 (9)4.89 (0.39)4.89 (0.39)4.84 (0.44)<0.0001
Incident diabetes by Y25, n (%)76 (9)61 (7)81 (10)152 (18)<0.0001
Diabetes duration, years0.5 (2.2)0.3 (1.7)0.4 (1.6)0.8 (2.5)<0.0001
Number of glucose measurements4.8 (1.2)5.2 (1.0)5.1 (1.1)4.7 (1.3)<0.0001
CV, glucose3.9 (1.0)6.1 (0.5)8.1 (0.7)12.0 (2.9)<0.0001
ARV-FG mmol/L per year0.007 (0.004)0.011 (0.005)0.013 (0.006)0.017 (0.010)<0.0001
Proportion of ARV in positive direction0.63 (0.24)0.66 (0.20)0.71 (0.20)0.76 (0.21)<0.0001
Majority of ARV is in positive direction, n (%)572 (69)664 (80)708 (86)723 (87)<0.0001
  • Data are means (SD) unless otherwise indicated. Y0, year 0; Y25, year 25.

  • *P value for global test: ANOVA for continuous variables and Pearson χ2 tests for categorical variables.