Table 1

Summary of population-based studies used for external validation

Data sets
NIEHSSiMESAusDiab
Year200820042004–2012
CountryAustraliaSingaporeAustralia
Demographics
 Age, years (range)40–9040–8025–90
 EthnicityIndigenous AustraliansMalaysCaucasian Australians
 Male sex (%)41.151.953
 Diabetes prevalence (%)9.43524.5
Retinal imaging
 ProtocolTwo-field, 45° images taken with a Canon CR-DGi camera Mydriasis performed when nonmydriatic photography failedTwo-field, 45° images taken with a Canon CR-DGi camera Mydriasis performed for all participantsTwo-field, 45° images taken with a Canon CR6-45NM camera No pupillary dilation
 Grader experienceFive certified professional senior graders (>2 years’ experience) supervised by a retinal specialist from AustraliaOne certified professional senior grader (>7 years’ experience)Three certified professional senior graders (>2 years’ experience) supervised by a retinal specialist from Australia
Images (n)7,18115,67912,341