Table 2

Multivariable-adjusted differences in structural brain abnormalities among individuals with prediabetes and individuals with type 2 diabetes, as compared to individuals with NGM

PrediabetesType 2 diabetesPtrend
Markers of cerebral small-vessel disease
 LIs (yes/no), OR (95% CI)
  Model 11.62 (1.00–2.64)1.71 (1.11–2.63)0.012
  Model 21.61 (0.98–2.63)1.67 (1.04–2.68)0.027
 Total WMH volume (log-mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 10.08 (0.00–0.15)0.22 (0.16–0.29)<0.001
  Model 20.07 (0.00–0.15)0.21 (0.14–0.28)<0.001
 dWMH volume (log-mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 10.08 (0.00–0.16)0.17 (0.10–0.24)<0.001
  Model 20.07 (−0.01–0.15)0.16 (0.08–0.24)<0.001
 pWMH volume (log-mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 10.07 (0.00–0.14)0.22 (0.16–0.28)<0.001
  Model 20.06 (−0.01–0.13)0.20 (0.14–0.27)<0.001
 CMBs (yes/no), OR (95% CI)
  Model 10.85 (0.57–1.26)1.17 (0.85–1.26)0.433
  Model 20.85 (0.57–1.27)1.14 (0.80–1.62)0.567
Brain volumes
 White matter volume (mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 1−3.2 (−6.5 to 0.1)−6.1 (−9.0 to −3.1)<0.001
  Model 2−4.0 (−7.3 to −0.6)−7.2 (−10.4 to −4.0)<0.001
 Gray matter volume (mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 1−1.1 (−4.4 to 2.1)−8.2 (−11.1 to −5.3)<0.001
  Model 2−0.4 (−3.7 to 2.8)−6.2 (−9.4 to −3.1)<0.001
 CSF (mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 13.9 (0.3–7.6)13.4 (10.1–16.7)<0.001
  Model 23.9 (0.8–7.6)12.5 (9.0–16.1)<0.001
  • Associations of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes with structural brain abnormalities in the study population. ORs with 95% CI represent the risk of the presence of LIs or CMBs, and regression coefficients indicate the mean difference with 95% CI in total WMH, dWMH, and pWMH volumes or white matter, gray matter, and CSF volumes of participants with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes compared with NGM. Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, intracranial volume (only for analyses with WMH, white matter, gray matter, and CSF) and time between baseline and MRI measurements. Model 2: model 1 adjustments with additional adjustment for BMI, smoking status, total–to–HDL cholesterol ratio, office systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and educational level.