Table 1

General characteristics of the study population

NGM (n = 1,373)Prediabetes (n = 347)Type 2 diabetes (n = 508)Ptrend
Demographics
 Age (years)57.6 ± 8.161.1 ± 7.662.5 ± 7.5<0.001
 Sex (% female)55.644.531.1<0.001
Glucose metabolism
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)5.2 ± 0.45.9 ± 0.67.4 ± 1.2<0.001
 2-h postload glucose (mmol/L)*5.4 ± 1.18.1 ± 1.814.1 ± 4.1<0.001
 HbA1c (%)5.4 ± 0.35.7 ± 0.46.6 ± 0.6<0.001
 HbA1c (mmol/mol)36.1 ± 3.738.6 ± 4.448.1 ± 7.0<0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors
 BMI (kg/m2)25.4 ± 3.527.3 ± 4.028.9 ± 4.5<0.001
 Systolic BP (mmHg)130.7 ± 16.8136.2 ± 16.3139.5 ± 16.3<0.001
 Diastolic BP (mmHg)75.3 ± 9.977.5 ± 9.677.8 ± 9.4<0.001
 Hypertension (%)38.960.181.5<0.001
 Total–to–HDL cholesterol ratio3.6 ± 1.23.9 ± 1.23.7 ± 1.2<0.001
 Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.2 ± 0.71.6 ± 1.01.7 ± 0.9<0.001
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)90.5 ± 13.087.0 ± 13.785.8 ± 16.3<0.001
 History of CVD (%)8.711.420.9<0.001
Medication use (%)
 Antihypertension medication20.539.669.9<0.001
 Lipid-modifying medication14.729.871.9<0.001
Lifestyle factors (%)
 Smoking, never/former/current40.9/47.8/11.330.1/59.5/11.332.5/54.7/12.80.001
 Educational level, low/medium/high25.2/28.3/46.532.7/30.9/36.441.3/30.1/28.5<0.001
Markers of cerebral small-vessel disease
 LIs present (%)4.17.99.0<0.001
 Total WMH (mL)0.17 (0.05–0.52)0.27 (0.07–1.12)0.40 (0.15–1.31)<0.001
 dWMH (mL)0.04 (0.01–0.15)0.08 (0.01–0.30)0.09 (0.02–0.40)<0.001
 pWMH (mL)0.20 (0.05–0.73)0.30 (0.09–0.90)0.12 (0.04–0.37)<0.001
 CMBs present (%)10.912.315.80.020
Brain volumes (mL)
 White matter479.6 ± 59.5468.3 ± 62.6466.0 ± 60.0<0.001
 Gray matter666.6 ± 58.8654.3 ± 62.9648.0 ± 61.6<0.001
 CSF247.2 ± 45.8257.2 ± 50.0268.8 ± 50.4<0.001
 Intracranial1,394.1 ± 133.91,381.1 ± 146.21,384.7 ± 131.70.148
MRI lag time (years)2.4 ± 1.32.4 ± 1.32.4 ± 1.30.608
  • Data are presented as means ± SD or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated and are stratified for (pre)diabetes status: NGM, prediabetes, or type 2 diabetes. BP, blood pressure; CVD, cardiovascular disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  • *2-h postload glucose values were available in n = 2,111.

  • †Data on LIs were available in n = 2,190.

  • ‡Data on CMBs were available in n = 2,149.