Table 3

Multivariable-adjusted associations of HbA1c, fasting glucose, and 2-h postload glucose levels with structural brain abnormalities

HbA1cPFasting glucoseP2-h postload glucoseP
Markers of cerebral small-vessel disease
 LIs (yes/no), OR (95% CI)
  Model 11.28 (1.11–1.49)0.0011.22 (1.05–1.42)0.0091.19 (1.00–1.40)0.047
  Model 21.28 (1.09–1.50)0.0021.22 (1.03–1.44)0.0201.21 (1.01–1.44)0.039
 Total WMH volume (log-mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 10.10 (0.07–0.14)<0.0010.12 (0.08–0.15)<0.0010.12 (0.08–0.15)<0.001
  Model 20.09 (0.05–0.13)<0.0010.11 (0.07–0.15)<0.0010.11 (0.07–0.15)<0.001
 dWMH volume (log-mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 10.07 (0.03–0.11)0.0010.09 (0.05–0.12)<0.0010.07 (0.03–0.11)<0.001
  Model 20.06 (0.01–0.10)0.0080.08 (0.04–0.12)<0.0010.06 (0.02–0.11)0.003
 pWMH volume (log-mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 10.11 (0.08–0.15)<0.0010.13 (0.09–0.16)<0.0010.13 (0.09–0.17)<0.001
  Model 20.10 (0.06–0.14)<0.0010.12 (0.08–0.16)<0.0010.12 (0.08–0.16)<0.001
 CMBs (yes/no), OR (95% CI)
  Model 11.05 (0.92–1.19)0.4791.04 (0.91–1.19)0.5740.97 (0.85–1.11)0.668
  Model 21.04 (0.90–1.20)0.5801.03 (0.89–1.19)0.6680.98 (0.84–1.13)0.743
Brain volumes
 White matter volume (mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 1−0.02 (−0.04 to 0.00)0.052−0.03 (−0.05 to −0.01)0.016−0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02)0.001
  Model 2−0.02 (−0.04 to 0.00)0.032−0.03 (−0.05 to −0.01)0.007−0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02)<0.001
 Gray matter volume (mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 1−0.05 (−0.07 to −0.04)<0.001−0.05 (−0.07 to −0.03)<0.001−0.03 (−0.05 to −0.01)0.004
  Model 2−0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02)<0.001−0.04 (−0.06 to −0.02)0.001−0.02 (−0.04 to 0.00)0.035
 CSF (mL), β (95% CI)
  Model 10.09 (0.06–0.11)<0.0010.09 (0.06–0.11)<0.0010.08 (0.05–0.10)<0.001
  Model 20.07 (0.05–0.10)<0.0010.08 (0.05–0.11)<0.0010.07 (0.05–0.10)<0.001
  • Associations between continuous measures of glycemia and structural brain abnormalities in the study population. ORs with 95% CI represent the risk of the presence of LIs or CMBs, and standardized β and 95% CIs indicate the mean difference in WMH, dWMH, and pWMH volumes or white matter, gray matter, and CSF volumes per SD increase in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, or 2-h postload glucose. Model 1: adjustment for age, sex, intracranial volume, and time between baseline and MRI measurements. Model 2: model 1 adjustments plus additional adjustment for BMI, smoking status, total–to–HDL cholesterol ratio, office systolic blood pressure, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and educational level.