Table 1

Characteristics of the study populations

Normal weightOverweightObeseP
Metabolically healthyMetabolically unhealthyMetabolically healthyMetabolically unhealthyMetabolically healthyMetabolically unhealthy
Brazil
N1432271543112
 Boys, %19.641.06.737.2025.0
 Age, years16.5 (0.8)16.6 (0.8)16.5 (0.7)16.4 (0.8)17.016.7 (0.8)0.8603
 BMI, kg/m219.7 (2.1)20.2 (2.1)26.3 (1.3)26.0 (1.3)40.132.4 (2.5)<0.0001
 WC, cm67.2 (4.7)68.9 (4.9)78.9 (5.3)81.8 (5.0)10593.1 (9.2)<0.0001
 WHtR0.41 (0.03)0.42 (0.03)0.50 (0.03)0.50 (0.03)0.630.58 (0.05)<0.0001
 SBP, mmHg104.1 (7.0)112.9 (10.2)108.8 (6.5)118.2 (10.2)112.7120.4 (5.0)<0.0001
 DBP, mmHg63.6 (5.3)68.7 (7.0)67.3 (4.8)69.7 (6.7)77.075.2 (4.7)<0.0001
 TG, mg/dL63.0 (51.0–78.0)77.0 (58.0–104.0)64.0 (52.0–93.0)89.0 (72.0–136.0)69140.5 (79.5–153.5)<0.0001
 HDL-C, mg/dL47.7 (5.8)38.6 (8.5)48.2 (7.2)39.1 (7.6)52.038.5 (6.9)<0.0001
 FBG, mg/dL75.2 (6.8)75.8 (7.3)75.9 (6.6)79.3 (7.1)78.074.3 (4.7)0.0535
China
N65028515715347124
 Boys, %50.244.960.556.959.669.4
 Age, years8.7 (1.5)9.3 (1.4)9.0 (1.5)9.5 (1.3)8.6 (1.6)8.8 (1.5)0.0105
 BMI, kg/m215.9 (1.4)16.8 (1.5)20.4 (1.6)21.3 (1.7)23.4 (2.2)24.9 (2.9)<0.0001
 WC, cm56.9 (4.7)59.7 (5.4)69.1 (7.0)71.7 (6.7)75.5 (7.9)80.0 (8.3)<0.0001
 WHtR0.43 (0.03)0.43 (0.03)0.50 (0.03)0.50 (0.03)0.55 (0.04)0.57 (0.04)<0.0001
 SBP, mmHg101.6 (6.4)113.1 (8.0)104.2 (6.0)115.0 (7.9)106.6 (4.9)115.7 (7.8)<0.0001
 DBP, mmHg60.9 (5.3)66.6 (6.4)63.2 (5.3)68.8 (6.3)64.5 (5.1)68.9 (7.0)<0.0001
 TG, mg/dL61.1 (51.4–76.2)81.5 (57.6–116.9)72.6 (62.0–89.5)101.0 (71.7–135.5)78.8 (59.3–93.9)110.7 (73.1–143.5)<0.0001
 HDL-C, mg/dL66.7 (12.9)65.8 (15.7)61.9 (10.7)62.2 (13.3)57.8 (9.8)56.9 (12.5)<0.0001
 FBG, mg/dL81.9 (9.5)87.1 (12.6)85.3 (8.3)88.6 (11.1)82.9 (8.9)85.6 (10.8)<0.0001
Greece
N1629437921143
 Boys, %34.645.754.160.954.660.5
 Age, years13.5 (2.1)13.6 (2.3)12.3 (2.2)13.6 (2.2)12.6 (2.8)13.3 (1.9)0.4039
 BMI, kg/m218.8 (2.4)19.5 (2.2)23.8 (2.1)24.8 (2.1)30.2 (4.6)31.5 (4.1)<0.0001
 WC, cm72.2 (9.1)74.5 (8.1)83.8 (7.6)88.0 (8.2)95.0 (11.8)101.5 (10.6)<0.0001
 WHtR0.46 (0.05)0.47 (0.04)0.54 (0.04)0.54 (0.05)0.60 (0.06)0.63 (0.06)<0.0001
 SBP, mmHg106.6 (6.8)117.4 (9.9)108.3 (7.2)123.2 (11.9)111.3 (7.4)124.7 (11.2)<0.0001
 DBP, mmHg66.1 (6.3)74.8 (7.8)67.7 (5.8)75.5 (7.7)69.8 (6.0)78.8 (7.4)<0.0001
 TG, mg/dL57.5 (43.0–74.0)67.0 (48.0–110.0)64.0 (53.0–84.0)76.0 (63.0–112.5)53.0 (45.0–86.0)109.0 (72.0–141.0)<0.0001
 HDL-C, mg/dL60.5 (10.4)54.8 (14.7)57.0 (9.6)50.3 (11.2)52.2 (7.4)45.0 (10.7)<0.0001
 FBG, mg/dL90.7 (8.6)92.3 (7.1)92.0 (5.4)94.0 (9.2)92.1 (9.3)94.9 (8.8)0.0004
Italy
N23785100782446
 Boys, %44.348.251.056.462.560.9
 Age, years12.3 (0.9)12.4 (1.0)12.0 (0.9)12.2 (0.9)12.1 (1.0)12.0 (0.9)0.0330
 BMI, kg/m218.5 (1.9)18.5 (2.3)23.5 (1.6)23.8 (1.6)28.8 (2.5)29.6 (2.7)<0.0001
 WC, cm72.2 (6.5)72.2 (8.3)84.7 (7.2)86.0 (6.7)97.6 (7.0)99.4 (7.7)<0.0001
 WHtR0.46 (0.03)0.47 (0.04)0.54 (0.04)0.55 (0.04)0.61 (0.04)0.62 (0.05)<0.0001
 SBP, mmHg100.3 (9.3)111.9 (13.3)103.6 (8.7)110.1 (13.2)107.0 (10.3)112.7 (10.1)<0.0001
 DBP, mmHg62.3 (6.5)68.2 (9.2)64.2 (6.4)68.6 (9.4)64.5 (6.7)70.1 (6.3)<0.0001
 TG, mg/dL56.0 (44.0–74.0)72.0 (53.0–95.0)59.5 (47.5–75.0)100.0 (66.0–131.0)73.5 (57.5–92.5)93.0 (76.0–127.0)<0.0001
 HDL-C, mg/dL57.0 (10.6)47.8 (12.9)51.1 (8.2)45.2 (11.2)49.9 (9.0)40.5 (9.6)<0.0001
 FBG, mg/dL82.2 (6.1)84.1 (9.0)83.4 (6.0)83.4 (7.7)82.6 (6.9)82.5 (6.4)0.4577
Spain
N20178796175137
 Boys, %53.246.254.454.158.754.0
 Age, years8.2 (1.8)8.1 (1.7)8.9 (1.7)9.2 (1.6)8.8 (1.7)9.3 (1.9)<0.0001
 BMI, kg/m215.8 (1.8)16.1 (1.6)20.8 (2.0)21.3 (2.0)24.5 (2.7)26.1 (3.4)<0.0001
 WC, cm55.3 (6.4)55.3 (5.5)69.8 (8.0)71.8 (8.3)77.2 (9.6)81.9 (10.6)<0.0001
 WHtR0.43 (0.03)0.43 (0.03)0.51 (0.04)0.52 (0.04)0.56 (0.05)0.58 (0.05)<0.0001
 SBP, mmHg100.1 (7.2)112.1 (9.4)103.0 (7.5)116.2 (10.3)103.2 (7.9)117.7 (9.4)<0.0001
 DBP, mmHg57.2 (5.4)63.5 (8.4)58.8 (5.8)63.5 (8.1)58.6 (7.0)67.3 (8.3)<0.0001
 TG, mg/dL47.0 (37.0–59.0)49.0 (40.0–68.0)54.0 (43.0–68.0)60.0 (47.0–95.0)58.0 (43.0–85.0)76.0 (55.0–116.0)<0.0001
 HDL-C, mg/dL62.2 (12.6)61.0 (16.0)56.6 (10.8)53.7 (13.0)53.7 (8.5)47.1 (11.1)<0.0001
 FBG, mg/dL85.6 (6.8)86.0 (8.3)87.6 (6.1)87.7 (6.2)87.3 (5.8)89.1 (6.2)<0.0001
  • Data are means (SD) or median (interquartile range) if the variable was not normally distributed, and categorical variables are presented as proportions. DBP, diastolic BP; SBP, systolic BP; WC, waist circumference.