Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study population in KORA F4 stratified by incidence of DSPN*

VariableNo incident DSPNIncident DSPNP
N386127
Age (years)67.9 ± 4.670.2 ± 5.0<0.001
Men (%)49.255.90.169
Socioeconomic status (%)0.139
 Low23.627.0
 Moderate low21.219.8
 Moderate21.827.8
 Moderate high19.211.1
 High14.214.3
Height (cm)166 ± 9167 ± 90.016
BMI (kg/m2)27.6 ± 3.929.2 ± 4<0.001
BMI classes (%)0.001
 Normal weight (18.5 to <25 kg/m2)27.511.0
 Overweight (25 to <30 kg/m2)46.152.8
 Obese (≥30 kg/m2)26.436.2
Waist circumference (cm)94.7 ± 11.3100.1 ± 11.4<0.001
Waist circumference classes (%)<0.001
 WHO definition
  Low (M: <102, W: <88 cm)53.134.6
  High (M: ≥102, W: ≥88 cm)46.965.4
 IDF definition0.001
  Low (M: <94, W: <80 cm)24.111.0
  High (M: ≥94, W: ≥80 cm)75.989.0
WHR0.90 ± 0.080.92 ± 0.080.004
WHR classes (%)0.071
 Low (M: <0.95, W: <0.8)35.827.6
 High (M: ≥0.95, W: ≥0.8)64.272.4
HbA1c (%)5.66 ± 0.485.83 ± 0.690.014
HbA1c (mmol/mol)39 ± 640 ± 70.014
Diabetes status (%)0.299
 No diabetes45.938.6
 Prediabetes§40.240.9
 Diabetes14.020.5
Hypertension (%)56.565.40.452
Total cholesterol mmol/L (mmol/L)6.06 ± 1.015.82 ± 1.120.094
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/L)1.27 (0.97; 1.77)1.29 (1.05; 1.67)0.745
Use of lipid-lowering drugs (%)23.126.80.643
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)80.2 ± 13.176.9 ± 14.30.498
Smoking status (%)
 Never51.654.30.002
 Former42.733.9
 Current5.711.8
Alcohol intake (%)#
 Abstainer31.130.70.584
 Moderate intake52.351.2
 High intake16.618.1
Physically active (%)62.241.7<0.001
Myocardial infarction (%)5.27.10.850
Neurological conditions that might cause nerve damage (%)15.120.50.084
Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (%)††1.02.40.375
IL-6 (pg/mL)1.33 (0.94; 1.96)1.71 (1.22; 2.52)0.005
TNF-α (pg/mL)1.90 (1.39; 2.73)2.09 (1.60; 3.43)0.062
CCL7 (NPX)1.83 ± 0.502.09 ± 0.64<0.001
CXCL9 (NPX)7.27 ± 0.757.68 ± 0.89<0.001
CXCL10 (NPX)9.32 ± 0.849.74 ± 1.09<0.001
DNER (NPX)8.32 ± 0.268.34 ± 0.260.084
CD40 (NPX)10.19 ± 0.3210.31 ± 0.340.001
TNFRSF9 (NPX)6.19 ± 0.446.41 ± 0.47<0.001
  • Data are shown as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range), or percentages. The P values are derived from logistic regression analysis (likelihood ratio tests comparing models with the respective variable and age and sex as independent variables to models with age and sex only). All analyses were adjusted for age and sex except associations with age (sex-adjusted only) or sex (age-adjusted only). Data from this table have been published in a previous report from the KORA study (10).

  • CD, cluster of differentiation; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; M, men; W, women.

  • *DSPN defined by MNSI >3.

  • †Socioeconomic status based on a score including education, income, and occupation and classified as low (1–9 points), moderate low (10–12 points), moderate (13–15 points), moderate high (16–19 points), and high (>19 points).

  • §Prediabetes was defined as IFG and/or IGT.

  • ‡Blood pressure of ≥140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive medication given that the subjects were aware of as hypertensive.

  • ¶Individuals using lipid-lowering drugs excluded (n = 123).

  • #Classified as none (0 g/day), moderate (≥0 to <20 g/day for women and ≥0 to <40 g/day for men), or high (≥20 g/day for women and ≥40 g/day for men).

  • ‖Defined as >1 h sports/week in summer and winter.

  • ††Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs except acetylsalicylic acid used as platelet aggregation inhibitor.