Table 1

Clinical characteristics of all participants by SGLT2i use at baseline and propensity-matched cohorts at the time of matching

Full population: trial baselinePropensity matched: time of matching
No SGLT2iSGLT2iDapagliflozinNo SGLT2iSGLT2iNo dapagliflozinDapagliflozin
Participants (n)6,610786385709709353353
Male sex4,056 (61)531 (68)249 (65)470 (66)483 (68)225 (64)230 (65)
Age (years)62.2 (9.4)59.6 (8.9)59.4 (8.6)62.7 (9.5)62.2 (8.6)63.6 (9.5)62.0 (8.3)
Race
 White4,939 (75)682 (87)331 (86)612 (86)616 (87)300 (85)302 (86)
 Black414 (6.3)22 (2.8)11 (2.9)22 (3.1)19 (2.7)14 (4.0)10 (2.8)
 Asian672 (10)55 (7.0)32 (8.3)55 (7.8)52 (7.3)26 (7.4)32 (9.1)
 Other/unknown585 (8.9)27 (3.4)11 (2.9)20 (2.8)22 (3.1)13 (3.7)9 (2.5)
Region
 North America1,591 (24)283 (36)60 (16)259 (37)250 (35)70 (20)57 (16)
 Latin America1,312 (20)51 (6.5)35 (9.1)48 (6.8)48 (6.8)31 (8.8)32 (9.1)
 Asia Pacific699 (11)61 (7.8)43 (11)54 (7.6)58 (8.2)33 (9.3)43 (12)
 Western Europe1,148 (17)251 (32)164 (43)198 (28)219 (31)138 (39)141 (40)
 Eastern Europe1,860 (28)140 (18)83 (22)150 (21)134 (19)81 (23)80 (23)
Hispanic ethnicity1,451 (22)69 (8.8)38 (9.9)58 (8.2)64 (9.0)37 (10)36 (10)
Duration of diabetes (years)13.2 (8.4)12.8 (7.5)12.3 (7.4)15.7 (8.1)15.5 (7.5)15.4 (8.3)14.7 (7.2)
History of CVD (CAD, PAD, or stroke)4,887 (74)501 (64)240 (62)486 (69)479 (68)226 (64)227 (64)
History of heart failure1,131 (17)97 (12)46 (12)100 (14)97 (14)52 (15)45 (13)
History of retinopathy1,137 (17)109 (14)52 (14)132 (19)122 (17)59 (17)57 (16)
History of albuminuria1,012 (15)139 (18)67 (17)170 (24)171 (24)83 (24)83 (24)
 Microalbuminuria777 (12)115 (15)57 (15)139 (20)140 (20)67 (19)70 (20)
 Macroalbuminuria235 (3.6)24 (3.1)10 (2.6)39 (5.5)37 (5.2)19 (5.4)14 (4.0)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)135.6 (17.0)134.5 (15.7)135.0 (16.2)134.2 (17.1)134.4 (16.4)136.5 (16.7)135.9 (15.6)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77.9 (10.2)78.8 (10.2)79.5 (10.5)76.8 (10.9)77.3 (10.5)77.8 (10.5)78.8 (10.1)
BMI (kg/m2)32.5 (6.5)34.4 (6.3)34.1 (6.2)34.1 (6.4)34.3 (6.3)34.0 (6.8)34.1 (6.1)
HbA1c
 %8.1 (1.0)8.2 (0.9)8.2 (0.9)8.3 (1.5)8.4 (1.3)8.2 (1.6)8.3 (1.2)
 mmol/mol65666667686667
Cholesterol (mmol/L)4.6 (3.1)4.3 (1.1)4.4 (1.1)4.2 (1.1)4.2 (1.1)4.3 (1.3)4.3 (1.2)
 LDL (mmol/L)2.5 (1.9)2.3 (0.8)2.3 (0.9)2.3 (0.9)2.2 (0.9)2.3 (1.1)2.3 (0.9)
 HDL (mmol/L)1.1 (0.3)1.1 (0.3)1.1 (0.4)1.4 (7.6)1.3 (4.0)1.1 (0.3)1.6 (5.6)
UACR (g/mol), median (SD)1.7 (97.3)1.5 (32.2)1.7 (29.7)1.8 (51.4)1.7 (45.9)1.7 (38.7)1.7 (14.7)
Hemoglobin (g/L)141.4 (75.9)141.1 (15.4)142.1 (15.9)138.5 (43.9)140.5 (16.9)136.3 (15.6)141.6 (17.2)
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2)75.9 (24.2)82.6 (21.7)83.2 (21.6)79.2 (25.9)80.1 (21.3)79.1 (27.1)81.6 (21.3)
 eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m21,700 (26)112 (14)51 (13)156 (22)124 (17)74 (21)51 (14)
 eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2516 (7.8)17 (2.2)8 (2.1)50 (7.1)18 (2.5)32 (9.1)7 (2.0)
Smoking
 Never766 (12)91 (12)45 (12)84 (12)84 (12)39 (11)43 (12)
 Past2,544 (38)345 (44)167 (43)323 (46)306 (43)153 (43)151 (43)
 Current3,296 (50)350 (45)173 (45)302 (43)319 (45)161 (46)160 (45)
Year of randomization in trial
 2010209 (3.2)53 (6.7)13 (3.4)52 (7.3)39 (5.5)17 (4.8)13 (3.7)
 2011534 (8.1)84 (11)29 (7.5)108 (15.2)68 (10)39 (11)25 (7.1)
 20121,697 (26)201 (26)120 (31)242 (34)179 (25)133 (38)111 (31)
 20131,344 (20)166 (21)88 (23)153 (22)158 (22)84 (24)81 (23)
 20141,966 (30)229 (29)105 (27)124 (17)215 (30)60 (17)95 (27)
 2015860 (13)53 (6.7)30 (7.8)30 (4.2)50 (7.1)20 (5.7)28 (7.9)
Number of classes of diabetes medications*1.3 (0.8)1.6 (0.9)1.6 (0.9)1.5 (0.9)1.6 (0.9)1.4 (0.9)1.5 (0.8)
RAASi5,153 (78)636 (81)312 (81)566 (80)573 (81)292 (83)288 (82)
Other antihypertensive3,831 (58)445 (57)228 (59)400 (56)422 (60)191 (54)212 (60)
Statin4,759 (72)607 (77)279 (72)528 (74)535 (75)248 (70)249 (71)
Diuretic2,893 (44)325 (41)153 (40)336 (47)315 (44)156 (44)144 (41)
Insulin3,079 (47)352 (45)168 (44)377 (53)392 (55)186 (53)188 (53)
Metformin4,993 (76)671 (85)331 (86)573 (81)584 (82)285 (81)291 (82)
TZD236 (3.6)50 (6.4)19 (4.9)39 (5.5)40 (5.6)15 (4.2)15 (4.2)
DPP-4i863 (13)221 (28)105 (27)191 (27)207 (29)82 (23)95 (27)
Sulfonylurea2,410 (36)288 (37)134 (35)249 (35)258 (36)131 (37)128 (36)
  • Data are n (%) or mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated. Trial baseline metrics calculated for participants with information available at randomization. CAD, coronary artery disease; RAASi, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitor; UACR, urinary albumin-to-creatine ratio.

  • †Cohort of non-SGLT2i users matched to dapagliflozin users.

  • *Classes of diabetes medicines included biguanides, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, DPP-4i, and TZDs. Insulin, SGLT2i, and GLP-1RA (excluded by study protocol) are not included.