Table 2

Effects of genetic and environmental factors on autoantibody outcomes (N = 47,729)

CovariateOR (95% CI)P value
GADA as outcome
 Age1.00 (0.995–1.005)0.9664
 Genetic factors (G)33.89 (11.54–99.48)<0.0001
 Environmental factors (E)0.922 (0.614–1.385)0.697
 Sex (female)0.97 (0.89–1.05)0.453
IA-2A as outcome
 Age0.97 (0.96–0.98)<0.0001
 Genetic factors (G)16.82 (4.10–69.72)0.0001
 Environmental factors (E)1.19 (0.71–2.00)0.521
 Sex (female)0.79 (0.70–0.89)0.0001
IAA as outcome
 Age0.95 (0.94–0.96)<0.0001
 Genetic factors (G)15.28 (4.37–53.49)<0.0001
 Environmental factors (E)1.48 (0.95–2.32)0.085
 Sex (female)0.75 (0.67–0.84)<0.0001
≥1 positive autoantibody as outcome
 Age1.00 (0.99–1.00)0.033
 Genetic factors (G)19.78 (7.64–51.21)<0.0001
 Environmental factors (E)1.07 (0.77–1.51)0.681
 Sex (female)0.89 (0.83–0.96)0.002
≥2 positive autoantibodies as outcome
 Age0.96 (0.95–0.97)<0.0001
 Genetic factors (G)26.68 (7.43–95.84)<0.0001
 Environmental factors (E)1.28 (0.80–2.07)0.307
 Sex (female)0.82 (0.73–0.92)0.0008
Both IA-2A and IAA positive as outcome
 Age0.92 (0.91–0.94)<0.0001
 Genetic factors (G)19.61 (3.29–116.87)0.0011
 Environmental factors (E)1.67 (0.86–3.23)0.1286
 Sex (female)0.67 (0.57–0.83)<0.0001
  • Logistic regression models testing the association of autoantibody outcomes, G (average fraction of genes shared identical by descent with affected proband), and E (environmental factors unique to twins [i.e., shared uterine environment]) adjusted for age and sex.